"Feudal" Capitularies - 9th Cent.
There is increasing uneasiness among scholars about the concept of feudalism as a term to describe non-monetized relationships between the land-holding aristocracy. Still various aspects of lordship and vassalage are documented. Here are some of the capitularies issued in the 9th century to regulate lordship relationships..
Capitulary Concerning Freemen and Vassals, 816
If anyone shall wish to leave his lord (seniorem), and is able to prove against him one of these crimes, that is, in the first place, if the lord has wished to reduce him unjustly into servitude; in the second place, if he has taken counsel against his life; in the third place, if the lord has committed adultery with the wife of his vassal; in. the fourth place, if he has wilfully attacked him with a drawn sword; n the fifth place, if the lord has been able to bring defence to his vassal after he has commended his hands to him, and has not done so; it is allowed to the vassal to leave him. If the lord has perpetrated anything against the vassal in these five points it is allowed the vassal to leave him.
Capitulary of Mersen (Kings Lothar, Lewis, and Charles), 847
We will moreover that each free man in our kingdom shall choose a lord, from us or our faithful, such a one as he wishes.
We command moreover that no man shall leave his lord without just cause, nor should any one receive him, except in such a way as was customary in the time of our predecessors.
And we wish you to know that we want to grant right to our faithful subjects and we do not wish to do anything to them against reason. Similarly we admonish you and the rest of our faithful subjects that you grant right to your men and do not act against reason toward them.
And we will that the man of each one of us in whosoever kingdom he is, shall go with his lord against the enemy, or in his other needs unless there shall have been (as may there not be) such an invasion of the kingdom as is called a landwer, so that the whole people of that kingdom shall go together to repel it.
from E. P. Cheyney, trans, University of Pennsylvania. Dept. of History: Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European history, published for the Dept. of History of the University of Pennsylvania., Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press . Vol IV, No: 3, 5
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(c)Paul Halsall Feb 1996