Class 3: The Eastern Roman Empire to Heraclius
I. Introduction A. Last Class - Recap B. Byzantium 1. Why important? Survival of Rome in East Most important Christina State until c. 1200 Sister civilization to West Important in history of Slavs and Russia Survival of classical culture 2. Three Elements Greek Culture - not Athenian, but Hellenistic Roman Government - late imperial system - the people Christian Religion 3. Renovatio - concept II. Constantinople Founded 324 - East was more vital part of the Empire Geographical situation. Size as a city Relics and impression on outsiders Dominance of later Byzantine history III. Separation of East and West A. Begun by Diocletian 395 last time united B. Invasions Persia - Sassanid Germans - Goths - Adrianople 378 Odovacar - 476 Theodoric - 495-536 IV. Development of Institutional Christianity A. Egypt, Anatolia and Rome The Pentarchy? B. Rome and Constantinople V. Church and Dogmatic Development Since Byzantium was so explicitly religious, developments in Christianity had direct social and political consequences. A. Need for Change - Heresy Problems in formulations of Trinity and Christology No problem, little doctrine, e.g. on Baptism B. Until it was legal main job was to survive, but after it became legal - the problem arose. Christianity changes from a sect (challenging the world. to a church (accommodating to the world. C. The Fathers - Explain concept. Origen Athanasius vs. Arius Jerome 340-420 - Vulgate Augustine 354-430 - City of God, and Predestination. Not cyclic history. History as and end. Greek Fathers Basil, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory Nazianus Cyril, Maximus, Pseudo-Dionysius D. Heresies 1. Donatism - Western Response to last persecution. in North Africa 2. Arianism - Egypt - firstborn, therefore not God Ulfilas and the Goths E. Councils Sardica Nicea 325 Constantine Presides Nicene Creed - Discuss F. Continued Dogmatic Disputes Mixed in with ecclesiastical politics But also based on genuine cultural differences. G. Church and State - Ambrose and Augustine Gelasius - Royal power and priestly power VI. Justinian 527-565 - Last Latin speaking emperor A. Attempt to Restore Rome Justinian from Illyrium The circus; Factions and Nike riots B. Belasarius In the East - Persia driven back In the West - Reconquest of Italy Destruction of classical civilization in Italy C. Theodora - fascination of historians with her. D. Procopius - Main source E. Roman Law - Corpus Iuris Civilis - in Latin F. Religious Policy Problem - Mix of Religious and Political Nestorianism Monophysitism Chalcedon 451 VII. Art and Architecture A. Buildings - Hagia Sophia B. Christian Iconography - Naturalistic but Heavenly C. Mosaics D. Ravenna VIII. End of Justinian's Reign Plague - 541-43, and afterwards - Began in Egypt New Invasions - Avars 561 Persia and Chosroes II - The Sassanids IX. Heraclius From North Africa - used to surviving 628 - Journey to Armenia X. The Basileus Greek - Union with people of Constantinople A. The Arab Invasions 717-18 B. Loss of Egypt and Syria First to Persians (millet system.) then to Arabs C. The Greek Empire The Balkans and Anatolia The Theme System
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© Paul Halsall, 1996.
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