Class 6: Arab Kingdoms and Islamic Empires: Ummayads, Abbasids,
I. Introduction Last class an exercise in macro and micro history trying to explain both the larger causes and immediate factors behind the truly explosive growth of Islam.] The factors - religious background, Persia, Arabness - all contribute to its development. The thing to be most born in mind is that from the beginning Muhammad was the founder of a polity and a religion. Uniqueness as prophet and statesman. II. Successors of the Prophet A. Introduction Muhammad left no instruction about a successor Not part of tribal background of the Banu Umma Other prophets in Arabia a at the time, e.g. Maslama Caliph - Khalifa asurallah - deputy or successor. B. The Four Early Caliphs - the rightly guided caliphs 1. Abu Bakr 632-34 -Wars of Riddha - (apostasy. -General Khalid ibn Walid used `the taste of blood is pleasant to my mouth' -Beginning of the Collection of the Qu'ran 2. Umar 634-44 Had been in control during Abu Bekr's reign. St. Paul type figure 3. Uthman 646-56 Married two of Muhammad's daughters. Competition with Ali for post, Uthman elected Led eventually to civil wars - 655 Uthman killed by Ali and others. End of Muslim unity. 4. Ali 656-661 Opposed from Mecca + Uthman's Family, the Ummayads. Made Kufa the new Capital Kharajites rejected Caliphs at time - "decision belongs to God alone" 5. Civil War II Muawiya - led war - proclaimed Caliph in Jerusalem, 660 Kharajites tried to kill both Ali and Muawiya, Killed Ali, but Muawiya survived Ummayyad Caliphate in Syria Ali's sons bought off. III. Growth of Empire A. Expansion 1. Booty - Diwan system to share it set up by Umar 2. Syria/Palestine 633 onwards Damascus 635 (oldest city in the World) Battle of Yarmuk 636 - end of Byzantine Syria Jerusalem fell 640 3. Iraq 637 Battle of Qadisiyya - opened up Iraq Ctesiphon went to Arabs Meant great Persian impact on Islam, as chief city fell, unlike Constontinople. 4. Iran - opened up by Battle of Nihavend 641 5. Egypt - Invaded 640 6. Onwards - Westwards and Eastwards B. Muslim Government Problem - small number of Arabs, Huge empire 1. The Umma 2. Amsar - garrison towns Basra/Kufa/Fustat 3. Dhimmi - Jizya Tax 4. Conversions Slow at first - Often from Christians IV. The Ummayads 661-750 A. Muawiyya 661-680 B. Damascus Western - Mediterranean orientation Used Christina advisor, e.g. Sarjan C. Buildings - Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem D. Translations - many from Syriac E. Failure to take over artistic culture F. Tribalism - more civil wars. Kerbala G. Mawali/Clients - non Arab Muslims. New problem. V. The Abbasids A. Shi'ism Theory of Al-Mahdi , and Imamate Hidden successor Various sects , e.g. Twelvers 12ers/Immami reject consensus/ijma and support toquiya/dissimulation B. Khorasan C. The Black Flag - Rebels in East - vs. Ummayads D. Baghdad - Eastern Orientation E. Harun al-Rashid 786-809 F. Elite Culture/Popular life The Arabian Nights - Sir Richard Burton VI. Break-Up of Abbasid Empire A. Ummayyad Spain -Conquest of Spain 711 -Muslim Rule -The Ummayyad Emirate -Cordova -The Caliphate Abd-ar-Rahman III -Poetry -Tolerance for Jews and Christians -Collapse -The Reconquista B. Fatamid Egypt -More Shia -Ismaili Shia - broke from Twelvers after no. 6 -Rival Caliphate -Cairo -Conquest of Syria and Palestine -Faced with Resurgent Byzantium -Hakim III and the Holy Sepulcher -The Crusades C. Loss of Control in Baghdad 1. Persian Nobility 2. Sultans Phenomenon of two kings Caliph and Sultan/ Sultan and atabeg/ King and Major Dome/ King and Prime Minister/ Emperor and Shogun 3. Turks - via Khorasan Troops first of all 4. The Seljuqs 1055 5. Alp Arslan D. Caliphs Remain in Baghdad until 1258 -Last one kicked to death in a carpet by Mongols -Restored in Egypt -Removed to Istanbul -Last one is last Turkish Sultan/Caliph
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© Paul Halsall, 1996.
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