John Cabot, in Italian Giovanni Caboto, was born in Genoa, Although a citizen of
Venice, he obtained letters-patent from Henry VII of England in 1496 for a voyage of
He crossed the Atlantic in 1497 and touched on the mainland of North America -
probably the Labrador coast. The following three documents contain all the evidence from
contemporary witnesses whose information may have come from John Cabot himself. The text
is from the Hakluyt Society's edition of Columbus' Journal.
Letter from Lorenzo Pasqualigo to His Brothers Alvise and Francesco.
[Calendar of State Papers (Venice), i. p. 262, No. 752.]
London, 23rd August, 1497.
Our Venetian, who went with a small ship from Bristol to find new islands, has come
back, and says he has discovered, 700 leagues off, the mainland of the country of the Gran
Cam, and that he coasted along it for 300 leagues, and landed, but did not see any person.
But he has brought here to the king certain snares spread to take game, and a needle for
making nets, and he found some notched trees, from which he judged that there were
inhabitants. Being in doubt, he came back to the ship. He has been away three months on
the voyage, which is certain, and, in returning, he saw two islands to the right, but he
did not wish to land, lest he should lose time for he was in want of provisions. This king
has been much pleased. He says that the tides are slack, and do not make currents as they
do here. The king has promised for another time, ten armed ships as he desires, and has
given him all the prisoners, except such as are confined for high treason, to go with him,
as he has requested; and has granted him money to amuse himself till then. Meanwhile, he
is with his Venetian wife and his sons at Bristol. His name is Zuam Talbot, [note: A
misprint: "T" for "C."] and he is called the Great Admiral, great
honour being paid to him, and he goes dressed in silk. The English are ready to go with
him, and so are many of our rascals. The discoverer of these things has planted a large
cross in the ground with a banner of England, and one of St. Mark, as he is a Venetian; so
that our flag has been hoisted very far away.
First Despatch of Raimondo di Soncino to the Duke of Milan. (Extract.)
[Calendar of State Papers (Venice), iii. p. 260, No. 750.]
24th August, 1497.
Some month afterwards His Majesty sent a Venetian, who is a distinguished sailor, and
who was much skilled in the discovery of new islands, and he has returned safe, and has
discovered two very large and fertile islands, having, it would seem, discovered the seven
cities 400 leagues from England to the westward. These successes led His Majesty at once
to entertain the intention of sending him with fifteen or twenty vessels.
Second Despatch of Raimondo di Soncino to the Duke of Milan.
[note: Annuario Scientifico, Milan, 1866, p. 700; Archiv d'Etat Milan, reprinted by
Harrisse in his John Cabot, p. 324, from the Intorno of Desimoni, and translated from his
text for the Hakluyt Society, with his permission.]
18th December, 1497.
My most illustrious and most excellent Lord,
Perhaps amidst so many occupations of your Excellency it will not be unwelcome to learn
how this Majesty has acquired a part of Asia without drawing his sword. In this kingdom
there is a certain Venetian named Zoanne Caboto, of gentle disposition, very expert in
navigation, who, seeing that the most serene Kings of Portugal and Spain had occupied
unknown islands, meditated the achievement of a similar acquisition for the said Majesty.
Having obtained royal privileges securing to himself the use of the dominions he might
discover, the sovereignty being reserved to the Crown, he entrusted his fortune to a small
vessel with a crew of 18 persons, and set out from Bristo, a port in the western part of
this kingdom. Having passed Ibernia, which is still further to the west, and then shaped a
northerly course, he began to navigate to the eastern part, leaving (during several days)
the North Star on the right hand; and having wandered thus for a long time, at length he
hit upon land, where he hoisted the royal standard, and took possession for his Highness,
and, having obtained various proofs of his discovery, he returned. The said Messer Zoanne,
being a foreigner and poor, would not have been believed if the crew, who are nearly all
English, and belonging to Bristo, had not testified that what he said was the truth. This
Messer Zoanne has the description of the world on a chart, and also on a solid sphere
which he has constructed, and on which he shows where he has been; and, proceeding towards
the east, he has passed as far as the country of the Tanais. And they say that there the
land is excellent and (the climate?) temperate, suggesting that brasil and silk grow
there. They affirm that the sea is full of fish, which are not only taken with a net, but
also with a basket, a stone being fastened to it in order to keep it in the water; and
this I have heard stated by the said Messer Zoanne.
The said Englishmen, his companions, say that they took so many fish that this kingdom
will no longer have need of Iceland, from which country there is an immense trade in the
fish they call stock-fish. But Messer Zoanne has set his mind on higher things, for he
thinks that, when that place has been occupied, he will keep on still further towards the
east, where he will be opposite to an island called Cipango, situated in the equinoctial
region, where he believes that all the spices of the world, as well as the jewels, are
found. He further says that he was once at Mecca, whither the spices are brought by
caravans from distant countries; and having inquired from whence they were brought and
where they grow, they answered that they did not know, but that such merchandize was
brought from distant countries by other caravans to their home; and they further say that
they are also conveyed from other remote regions. And he adduced this argument, that if
the eastern people tell those in the south that these things come from a far distance from
them, presupposing the rotundity of the earth, it must be that the last turn would be by
the north towards the west; and it is said that in this way the route would not cost more
than it costs now, and I also believe it. And what is more, this Majesty, who is wise and
not prodigal, reposes such trust in him because of what he has already achieved, that he
gives him a good maintenance, as Messer Zoanne has himself told me. And it is said that
before long his Majesty will arm some ships for him, and will give him all the malefactors
to go to that country and form a colony, so that they hope to establish a greater depot of
spices in London than there is in Alexandria. The principal people in the enterprise
belong to Bristo. They are great seamen, and, now that they know where to go, they say
that the voyage thither will not occupy more than 15 days after leaving Ibernia. I have
also spoken with a Burgundian, who was a companion of Messer Zoanne, who affirms all this,
and who wishes to return because the Admiral (for so Messer Zoanne is entitled) has given
him an island, and has given another to his barber of Castione, [Footnote 5: Perhaps
Castiglione, near Chiavari.] who is a Genoese, and both look upon themselves as
Counts; nor do they look upon my Lord the Admiral as less than a Prince. I also believe
that some poor Italian friars are going on this voyage, who have all had bishopricks
promised to them. And if I had made friends with the Admiral when he was about to sail, I
should have got an archbishoprick at least; but I have thought that the benefits reserved
for me by your Excellency will be more secure. I would venture to pray that, in the event
of a vacancy taking place in my absence, I may be put in possession, and that I may not be
superseded by those who, being present, can be more diligent than I, who am reduced in
this country to eating at each meal ten or twelve kinds of victuals, and to being three
hours at table every day, two for love of your Excellency, to whom I humbly recommend
myself. London, 18 Dec. 1497, your Excellency's most humble servant, Raimundus.