The Benefits of British Rule for India:
In the Cause of Humanity: Abolition of suttee and infanticide.
Destruction of Dacoits, Thugs, Pindarees, and other such pests of Indian society.
Allowing remarriage of Hindu widows, and charitable aid in time of famine. Glorious work
all this, of which any nation may well be proud, and such as has not fallen to the lot of
any people in the history of mankind.
In the Cause of Civilization: Education, both male and female. Though yet
only partial, an inestimable blessing as far as it has gone, and leading gradually to the
destruction of superstition, and many moral and social evils. Resuscitation of India's own
noble literature, modified and refined by the enlightenment of the West.
Politically: Peace and order. Freedom of speech and liberty of the press.
Higher political knowledge and aspirations. Improvement of government in the native
states. Security of life and property. Freedom from oppression caused by the caprice or
greed of despotic rulers, and from devastation by war. Equal justice between man and man
(sometimes vitiated by partiality to Europeans). Services of highly educated
administrators, who have achieved the above-mentioned results.
Materially: Loans for railways and irrigation. Development of a few
valuable products, such as indigo, tea, coffee, silk, etc. Increase of exports.
Generally: A slowly growing desire of late to treat India equitably, and
as a country held in trust. Good intentions. No nation on the face of the earth has ever
had the opportunity of achieving such a glorious work as this. I hope in the credit side
of the account I have done no injustice, and if I have omitted any item which anyone may
think of importance, I shall have the greatest pleasure in inserting it. I appreciate, and
so do my countrymen, what England has done for India, and I know that it is only in
British hands that her regeneration can be accomplished. Now for the debit side.
The Detriments of British Rule:
In the Cause of Humanity: Nothing. Everything, therefore, is in your favor
under this heading.
In the Cause of Civilization: As I have said already, there has been a
failure to do as much as might have been done, but I put nothing to the debit. Much has
been done, though.
Politically: Repeated breach of pledges to give the natives a fair and
reasonable share in the higher administration of their own country, which has much shaken
confidence in the good faith of the British word. Political aspirations and the legitimate
claim to have a reasonable voice in the legislation and the imposition and disbursement of
taxes, met to a very slight degree, thus treating the natives of India not as British
subjects, in whom representation is a birthright. Consequent on the above, an utter
disregard of the feelings and views of the natives. The great moral evil of the drain of
wisdom and practical administration, leaving none to guide the rising generation.
Financially: All attention is engrossed in devising new modes of
taxation, without any adequate effort to increase the means of the people to pay; and the
consequent vexation and oppressiveness of the taxes imposed, imperial and local.
Inequitable financial relations between England and India, i.e., the political debt
of ,100,000,000 clapped on India's shoulders, and all home charges also, though the
British Exchequer contributes nearly ,3,000,000 to the expense of the colonies.
Materially: The political drain, up to this time, from India to England,
of above ,500,000,000, at the lowest computation, in principal alone, which with interest
would be some thousands of millions. The further continuation of this drain at the rate,
at present, of above ,12,000,000 per annum, with a tendency to increase. The consequent
continuous impoverishment and exhaustion of the country, except so far as it has been very
partially relieved and replenished by the railway and irrigation loans, and the windfall
of the consequences of the American war, since 1850. Even with this relief, the material
condition of India is such that the great mass of the poor have hardly tuppence a day and
a few rags, or a scanty subsistence. The famines that were in their power to prevent, if
they had done their duty, as a good and intelligent government. The policy adopted during
the last fifteen years of building railways, irrigation works, etc., is hopeful, has
already resulted in much good to your credit, and if persevered in, gratitude and
contentment will follow. An increase of exports without adequate compensation; loss of
manufacturing industry and skill. Here I end the debit side.
Summary: To sum up the whole, the British rule has been: morally, a great
blessing; politically, peace and order on one hand, blunders on the other; materially,
impoverishment, relieved as far as the railway and other loans go. The natives call the
British system "Sakar ki Churi," the knife of sugar. That is to say, there is no
oppression, it is all smooth and sweet, but it is the knife, notwithstanding. I mention
this that you should know these feelings. Our great misfortune is that you do not know our
wants. When you will know our real wishes, I have not the least doubt that you would do
justice. The genius and spirit of the British people is fair play and justice.