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Studying History Human Origins Mesopotamia Egypt Persia Israel Greece Hellenistic World Rome Late Antiquity Christian Origins
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Internet Ancient History Sourcebook:
Mesopotamia


See Main Page for a guide to all contents of all sections.

Contents
Ancient Near East

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Sumeria (c. 3100-c. 2000 BCE)

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Akkadia (c.2350-2200 BCE)

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Babylonia (c.2000-1600 BCE)

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Kassites and Hittites (c.1600-717 BCE)

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Assyria (c.1350- 612 BCE)

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Chaldea/Neo-Babylonia (612-539 BCE)

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Syrian Cities: Ebla, Ugarit, Emar

Ebla was an ancient city in Syria at Tell Mardikh. The palace library, with thousands of tablets, was excavated by an Italian expedition in1975. These showed that Ebla had been a major commercial center. The tablets, written in a Canaanite language (Eblaite), date from c.2500 BCE. Exacavations over the past century have revealed more and more about Syrian cities.

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Phoenicia 950 BCE on

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Carthage: The Punic Empire

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ANE Arts and Architecture

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ANE Mathematics and Astronomy

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Gender and Sexuality

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Common Issues: Mesopotamian/Egyptian/Hebrew/Greek History

There are a number of problems in the various proposed chronologies of ancient Mediterranean cultures. One that most students might notice is a diversity in the dates given for Egyptian and Mesopotamian states, periods, and monarchs. The variety of methods used to ascertain dates leads to rival schemes with dates which vary by nearly a century. There is also a much large inconsistency claimed by credentialed scholars whose motives seem, however, to derive from Biblical literalism.

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NOTES:

Dates of accession of material added since July 1998 can be seen in the New Additions page..

The date of inception was 4/8/1998.

Links to files at other site are indicated by [At some indication of the site name or location].

Locally available texts are marked by [At this Site].

WEB indicates a link to one of small number of high quality web sites which provide either more texts or an especially valuable overview.


The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook is part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project



The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 12 April 2019 [Curriculum vitae]