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Copyright Fair Use Clause

Material on this site has been (a) created by the site author, Paul Halsall, or (b) assembled from a variety of Internet web sites and been placed here for ease and rapidity of local access, or, (c) for small amounts of text, derived from printed material.

A good faith effort has been made to comply with US copyright law. This does not mean that none of the material is copyright, but that the "fair use" clause of US Copyright Law has been adhered to. The "fair use" clause, as explicated at the University of Pennsylvania web site (, is given below.

In particular, any copyright material used here is (a) not used for commercial gain and used exclusively for educational purposes; and (b) used in limited amounts in comparison to the published source.

If there are any objections that material placed here does not conform to the "fair use" provisions outlined, contact Paul Halsall at and material will be removed immediately pending resolution of the issue.

As for material prepared by Paul Halsall, permission is given to use freely in electronic form, and in print at educational institutions, as long as source and author are indicated.

107: Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair Use
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phone records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use, the factors to be considered shall include:
  1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
  2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
  3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. (added pub. l 94-553, Title I, 101, Oct 19, 1976, 90 Stat 2546)