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Internet History Sourcebooks Project

How to Cite Internet History Sourcebook Project Documents in Footnotes, Endnotes and Bibliographies


There are a number of standard methods of for citing documents. The following suggestions for citations from the Internet History Sourcebooks Project are based on the Chicago/Turabian Style (used widely by historians), the MLA Style (used widely in literary studies), and thethe APA Style (used widely in the social sciences). Lecturers and teachers often either demand one of these styles or a style based on them.

Documents at this website present challenges to the usual demands as the authors might be anonymous and the dates of publication unclear, not known, or approximate. Also the most prominent name of this site might differ according to period/area covered - for example Internet Medieval Sourcebook, or Modern History Sourcebook etc. Fot the sake of clairty then all documents/files here are to be cited as part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project.

Documents/files/websites which are linked to but are located at other internet sites should be cited at those locations.

 


Chicago/Turabian

Chicago/Turabian Bibliographic Citations

Structure: Basic citation components and punctuation

With an Author

    Last name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

Without an Author

    "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

Examples:

With an Author

    Last name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

    Limer, Eric. “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. October 1, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.

    Cain, Kevin. "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. June 29, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2014. http://socialmediatoday.com/kcain/568836/negative-effects-facebook-communication.

Without an Author

    "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

    “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. October 1, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.

    "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. June 29, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2014. http://socialmediatoday.com/kcain/568836/negative-effects-facebook-communication.

Make sure to:

  • Include the date accessed if the publication date is not provided.
  • Note that the use of periods/full stops means that each item in a bibliography is treated as a paragraph.

******

Chicago/Turabian Footnote and Endnote Citations

Structure: Basic citation components and punctuation

With an Author

    First name Last name, "Article Title," Website Title, Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

Without an Author

    "Article Title," Website Title, Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

Examples:

With an Author

    Limer, Eric. “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. October 1, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.

    Cain, Kevin. "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. June 29, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2014. http://socialmediatoday.com/kcain/568836/negative-effects-facebook-communication.

Without an Author

    “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. October 1, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.

    "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. June 29, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2014. http://socialmediatoday.com/kcain/568836/negative-effects-facebook-communication.

Make sure to:

  • Include the date accessed if the publication date is not provided.
  • Note that the use of periods/full stops means that each item in a bibliography is treated as a sentence.


MLA Style

MLA Bibliographic Citations

Structure: Basic citation components and punctuation

With an Author

    Last name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Publisher of Website, Day Month Year article was published. Web. Day Month Year article was accessed. <URL>.

Without an Author

    Article Title." Website Title. Publisher of Website, Day Month Year article was published. Web. Day Month Year article was accessed. <URL>.

Examples:

With an Author

    Cain, Kevin. "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. N.p., 29 June 2012. Web. 02 Jan. 2013.

Without an Author

    "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. N.p., 29 June 2012. Web. 02 Jan. 2013.

Make sure to:

  • Only include the URL if the source cannot be found easily.

******

MLA Footnote and Endnote Citations

Structure: Basic citation components and punctuation

With an Author

    Last name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

Without an Author

    "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

Examples:

With an Author

    Limer, Eric. “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. October 1, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.

    Cain, Kevin. "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Internet History Sourcebooks Project.y. June 29, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2014. http://socialmediatoday.com/kcain/568836/negative-effects-facebook-communication.

Without an Author

    “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. October 1, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.

    "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. June 29, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2014. http://socialmediatoday.com/kcain/568836/negative-effects-facebook-communication.

Make sure to:

  • Include the date accessed if the publication date is not provided.


APA Style

APA Bibliographic Citations

Structure: Basic citation components and punctuation

With an Author

    Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL.

Without an Author

    Title of webpage/article. (Year, Month Date of publication). Retrieved from URL

Examples:

With an Author

    Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL.

    Satalkar, B. (2010, July 15). Water aerobics. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com

    Cain, K. (2012, June 29). The Negative effects of Facebook on communication. Social Media Today RSS. Retrieved from http://socialmediatoday.com

Without an Author

    Title of webpage/article. (Year, Month Date of publication). Retrieved from URL

    Satalkar, B. (2010, July 15). Water aerobics. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com

Make sure to:

  • Include the date accessed if the publication date is not provided.

******

APA Footnote and Endnote Citations

Structure: Basic citation components and punctuation

With an author

    Last name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

Without an Author

    "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

Examples:

With an Author

    Last name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

    Limer, Eric. “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Internet History Sourcebooks Project. September 8, 2014. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.

    Cain, Kevin. "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. June 29, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2014. http://socialmediatoday.com/kcain/568836/negative-effects-facebook-communication.

Without an Author

    "Article Title." Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.

    Satalkar, B. (2010, July 15). Water aerobics. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com

    Cain, K. (2012, June 29). The Negative effects of Facebook on communication. Social Media Today RSS. Retrieved from http://socialmediatoday.com

Make sure to:

  • Include the date accessed if the publication date is not provided.


The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 16 April 2019 [CV]