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Paul Halsall, halsall@fordham.edu, Sourcebook Compiler

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Although I am more than happy to receive notes if you have comments on this web site, I cannot answer specific research enquiries [and - for students - I cannot, or rather will not, do your homework.]  See the HELP! page for more suggestions on texts and research.

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IMPORTANT: New Structure for the Modern History Sourcebook

As of January 20 1999, the Internet Modern History Sourcebook has been completely reorganized.  Each of the main sections had became too large [nearly 300k] to maintain as one file.  To see the new arrangement go to the Main Index.  The four older index files - Early Modern | Three Revolutions | 19th Century (this page) | Modern World - will all remain available indefinitely, and the URLs of individual files will not alter. But no new texts (after 12/31/1998) will be added to these large index pages. For new texts, use the new structure, or check the New Additions page.

The new structure also includes a comprehensive Full Texts index, a HELP! page, and a Search page.


VI: The Century of Ideology and Power

The Council of Vienna System and Challenges


Nationalism was the most successful political force of the 19th century.  It emerged from two main sources: the Romantic exaltation of "feeling" and "identity" [see Herder above all on this] and the Liberal requirement that a legitimate state be based on a "people" rather than, for example, a dynasty, God, or imperial domination. Both Romantic "identity nationalism" and Liberal "civic nationalism" were essentially middle class movements. There were two main ways of exemplification: the French method of "inclusion" - essentially that anyone who accepted loyalty to the civil French state was a "citizen". In practice this meant the enforcement of a considerable degree of uniformity, for instance the destruction of regional languages. The US can be seen to have, eventually, adopted this ideal of civic inclusive nationalism. The German method, required by political circumstances, was todefine the "nation" in ethnic terms. Ethnicity in practice came down to speaking German and (perhaps) having a German name. For the largely German-speaking Slavic  middle classes of Prague, Agram etc. who took up the nationalist ideal, the ethnic aspect became even more important than it had been for the Germans. It is debateable whether, in practice,  all nationalisms ended up as Chauvinistic and aggressive, but the very nature of nationalism requires that boundaries be drawn. Unless these boundaries are purely civic, successful nationalism, in many cases produced a situation in which substantial groups of outsiders were left within "nation-states".



19th-Century Feminism

1848: Europe in Revolt






Other Western European Countries

Eastern European Countries

Power and Ideology in the US: North vs. South

Canada: Another North American Society

Latin America

Australia and New Zealand

Responses to Economic Growth: Socialism and Marxism

Responses to Economic Growth: Imperialism

The Second Industrial Revolution and Advanced Capitalism

Contradictions of the Enlightenment:
Darwin, Freud, Einstein and Modern Art

Religion in the Face of Modernity

Back to Index

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If any copyright has been infringed, this was unintentional. The possibility of a site such as this, as with other collections of electronic texts, depends on the large availability of public domain material from texts translated before 1920. [In the US, all texts issued before 1923 are now in the public domain (although later editing may be copyright). Texts published before 1964 may be in the public domain if copyright was not renewed after 28 years. This site seeks to abide by US copyright law: the copyright status of texts here outside the US may be different.] Efforts have been made to ascertain the copyright status of all texts on this site, although, occasionally, this has not been possible where older or non-US publishers seem to have ceased existence. Some of the recently translated texts on this site are copyright to the translators indicated in each document. These translators have in every case given permission for non-commercial reproduction. This site is intended for educational use. No representation is made about the copyright status of offsite links: note that for the Modern History Sourcebook, unlike the Medieval Sourcebook, many texts are offsite. Notification of copyright infringement will result in the immediate removal of a text until its status is resolved.

© Paul Halsall January 1997 - July 1998