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Greek Letter Combinations
(ligatures, etc.)


By ligatures are meant combinations of letters made for the sake of writing rather than the meaning of a word or words. For those see the separate Greek Abbreviations file.

 

Ligatures:
Usual combinations of Minuscule letters
Ligatures:
Combinations of letters in later minuscule MSS
Ligatures:
Combinations of letters by superposition
These ligatures were made according to set rules, which were almost always followed in early minuscule MSS As uncial letter forms were mixed in with pure minuscule (for instance beta, kappa, pi), ligatures were created using both forms In some case super-positioning (placing one letter above another) created yet more new forms.
Source: Bernhard Abraham van Groningen, Short Manual of Greek Palaeography, (Leiden: 1940)



The author and maintainer of this site is Paul Halsall. He can be contacted by email at

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The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 15 October 2019 [CV]