Modern History

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Internet Modern History Sourcebook

CRIB SHEET: Late 19th Century Science and Culture

[Note: Crib Sheets are meant as review aids for a particular period/theme. They are not complete overviews!]

Context of Cultural Change Knowledge and literature now more widespread:

  • Large reading public
  • state education
  • cheap newspapers eg. Daily Mail in England
Realism in Literature
  • Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) Madame Bovary 1857
  • George Eliot (1819-1880) Adam Bede 1859
Science Medicine
  • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Discovers bacteria 1868.
  • Vaccination against Rabies 1885.
  • Joseph Lister (1827-1912) begins sterilising wounds.
  • Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) - "survival of the fittest".
  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882),
    The Origin of the Species 1859, The Descent of Man 1871
  • Darwinian Evolution - Nature "red in tooth and claw".
  • Social Darwinism [ref. Herbert Spencer, Eugenics
  • Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) - Genetics
  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955), 1905 General Theory of Relativity
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Psychoanalysis
  • Tripartite division of the self - Ego, Id, Superego
  • sublimation of sexual energy for civilization.
The Crisis of Humanism
  • Auguste Comte (1798-1857) The Positive Philosophy 1830-1842
  • Fredrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Beyond Good and Evil 1886
  • Bertrand Russell: "Humanity is just an accidental assembly of atoms at the present time, which will separate in the future".
    Do people lack all free will - are their actions predetermined by their genetic make-up, or their psychological background, or do people have a real opportunity to make an impact on the world, and to be responsible for their actions?
The Roman Church
  • Pius IX (1846-1878)
    Immaculate Conception defined 1856
    The Syllabus of Errors 1864
    Vatican I 1870 - Papal Infallibility.
  • Leo XIII (1878-1903),
    Rerum Novarum 1891.
  • St. Pius X (1903-1914)
    Code of Canon Law 1911.
Spirituality and Marian Apparitions
  • John Henry Newman.
  • Lourdes - 1858 - St. Bernadette:,
  • Fatima - 1911., "Devotional Catholicism" in the United States

© 1997, Paul Halsall,

The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 6 October 2023 [CV]