Modern History

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Selected Sources Sections Studying History Reformation Early Modern World Everyday Life Absolutism Constitutionalism Colonial North America Colonial Latin America Scientific Revolution Enlightenment Enlightened Despots American Independence French Revolution Industrial Revolution Romanticism Conservative Order Nationalism Liberalism 1848 19C Britain 19C France 19C Germany 19C Italy 19C West Europe 19C East Europe Early US US Civil War US Immigration 19C US Culture Canada Australia & New Zealand 19C Latin America Socialism Imperialism Industrial Revolution II Darwin, Freud 19C Religion World War I Russian Revolution Age of Anxiety Depression Fascism Nazism Holocaust World War II Bipolar World US Power US Society Western Europe Since 1945 Eastern Europe Since 1945 Decolonization Asia Since 1900 Africa Since 1945 Middle East Since 1945 20C Latin America Modern Social Movements Post War Western Thought Religion Since 1945 Modern Science Pop Culture 21st Century
IHSP Credits
Late 19th Century Science and Culture

[Note: Crib Sheets are meant as review aids for a particular period/theme. They are not complete overviews!]
Context of Cultural Change Knowledge and literature now more widespread:
  • Large reading public
  • state education
  • cheap newspapers eg. Daily Mail in England
Realism in Literature
  • Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) Madame Bovary 1857
  • George Eliot (1819-1880) Adam Bede 1859
Science Medicine
  • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Discovers bacteria 1868.
  • Vaccination against Rabies 1885.
  • Joseph Lister (1827-1912) begins sterilising wounds.
  • Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) - "survival of the fittest".
  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882),
    The Origin of the Species 1859, The Descent of Man 1871
  • Darwinian Evolution - Nature "red in tooth and claw".
  • Social Darwinism [ref. Herbert Spencer, Eugenics
  • Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) - Genetics
  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955), 1905 General Theory of Relativity
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Psychoanalysis
  • Tripartite division of the self - Ego, Id, Superego
  • sublimation of sexual energy for civilization.
The Crisis of Humanism
  • Auguste Comte (1798-1857) The Positive Philosophy 1830-1842
  • Fredrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Beyond Good and Evil 1886
  • Bertrand Russell: "Humanity is just an accidental assembly of atoms at the present time, which will separate in the future".
    Do people lack all free will - are their actions predetermined by their genetic make-up, or their psychological background, or do people have a real opportunity to make an impact on the world, and to be responsible for their actions?
The Roman Church
  • Pius IX (1846-1878)
    Immaculate Conception defined 1856
    The Syllabus of Errors 1864
    Vatican I 1870 - Papal Infallibility.
  • Leo XIII (1878-1903),
    Rerum Novarum 1891.
  • St. Pius X (1903-1914)
    Code of Canon Law 1911.
Spirituality and Marian Apparitions
  • John Henry Newman.
  • Lourdes - 1858 - St. Bernadette:,
  • Fatima - 1911., "Devotional Catholicism" in the United States

© 1997, Paul Halsall,