Modern History

Full Texts Multimedia Additions Search Help

Selected Sources Sections Studying History Reformation Early Modern World Everyday Life Absolutism Constitutionalism Colonial North America Colonial Latin America Scientific Revolution Enlightenment Enlightened Despots American Independence French Revolution Industrial Revolution Romanticism Conservative Order Nationalism Liberalism 1848 19C Britain 19C France 19C Germany 19C Italy 19C West Europe 19C East Europe Early US US Civil War US Immigration 19C US Culture Canada Australia & New Zealand 19C Latin America Socialism Imperialism Industrial Revolution II Darwin, Freud 19C Religion World War I Russian Revolution Age of Anxiety Depression Fascism Nazism Holocaust World War II Bipolar World US Power US Society Western Europe Since 1945 Eastern Europe Since 1945 Decolonization Asia Since 1900 Africa Since 1945 Middle East Since 1945 20C Latin America Modern Social Movements Post War Western Thought Religion Since 1945 Modern Science Pop Culture 21st Century
IHSP Credits

The Scientific Revolution in the 17th Century

[Note: Crib Sheets are meant as review aids for a particular period/theme. They are not complete overviews!]

Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543)

  • 1543 De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium (On the Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs)
  • University of Padua

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)

  • 1572-73 Crab Nebula
  • 1577 new comet

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

  • Three Laws of Planetary Motion
  • One of the laws: An equal area of the plane is covered in equal time by planet revolving around the Sun. (or the period of revolution around the Sun is proportional to distance from the Sun.)

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

  • 1600 Giordano Bruno burnt
  • 1615 Letter to Grand Duchess of Tuscany
  • 1632 Dialogue on Two World Systems
  • 1633 Galileo banned by the Church
  • 1638 Discourse on Two New Sciences

Francis Bacon (1561-1625)

  • 1620 Novum Organum (New Tools)
  • Theory of Induction c.f. Karl Popper, David Hume

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

  • 1637 Discourse on Method
  • Theory of Deduction

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

  • 1687 Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy)
  • 1672 Jean Picard and Mars
  • Opticks - 1704
  • Newton's Three Laws of Motion
    1. A body moves in a straight line unless impeded. (Inertia).
    2. Every action has equal and opposite reaction.
    3. Every body attracts every other body with a force proportional to the distance between.

Anatomy and Medicine

  • Vesalius 1543
  • William Harvey
    1628 On the Movement of the Heart and the Blood
  • Malpighi and Capillaries 1661

© 1997, Paul Halsall,



The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021 [CV]