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Selected Sources Sections Studying History Reformation Early Modern World Everyday Life Absolutism Constitutionalism Colonial North America Colonial Latin America Scientific Revolution Enlightenment Enlightened Despots American Independence French Revolution Industrial Revolution Romanticism Conservative Order Nationalism Liberalism 1848 19C Britain 19C France 19C Germany 19C Italy 19C West Europe 19C East Europe Early US US Civil War US Immigration 19C US Culture Canada Australia & New Zealand 19C Latin America Socialism Imperialism Industrial Revolution II Darwin, Freud 19C Religion World War I Russian Revolution Age of Anxiety Depression Fascism Nazism Holocaust World War II Bipolar World US Power US Society Western Europe Since 1945 Eastern Europe Since 1945 Decolonization Asia Since 1900 Africa Since 1945 Middle East Since 1945 20C Latin America Modern Social Movements Post War Western Thought Religion Since 1945 Modern Science Pop Culture 21st Century
IHSP Credits
MODERN HISTORY SOURCEBOOK CRIB SHEET
Empiricism and Rationalism

[Note: Crib Sheets are meant as review aids for a particular period/theme. They are not complete overviews!]
The Rationalist Tradition
Rene Descartes 1591-1650
  • Discourse on Method 1637
  • Meditationes de Prima Philosophia 1641 (Meditations)
  • Principia Philosophiae 1644 (Principles)
  • Cogito ergo sum I think therefore I am
  • sum res cogitans - I am a being that thinks
Baruch(Benedictus) Spinoza 1632-77
  • Tractatus Theologico-Politicus 1670
  • Ethics 1677
  • Pantheism/Panentheism
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)
The Empiricist Tradition
Francis Bacon 1561-1626
  • Novum Organum 1620
  • Theory of Induction
Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679
  • Leviathan 1651
John Locke 1632-1704
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1690
  • Two Treatises of Civil Government 1690
  • A Letter Concerning Toleration 1689
  • innate ideas
  • tabula rasa
Bishop George Berkley 1685-1753
David Hume 1711-1761
  • Treatise on Human Nature 1739/40
  • An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding 1748
  • Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 1777
  • Opposes logic of induction
Immanual Kant 1724-1804
  • Critique of Pure Reason 1781
  • Critique of Practical Reason 1788
  • Categorical imperative
  • "inner world within, and starry heavens above"

The French Enlightenment and the Philosophes
Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) 1694-1778
  • Letters on the English 1733
  • Lettres Philosophiques 1734
  • Elements of the Philosophy of Newton 1738
  • Candide 1759
  • Dictionnaire Philosophique 1764
  • Ecrasez L'infame
Denis Diderot 1713-84
Jean le Rond d'Alembert 1717-83
  • The Encyclopedia 1751-72 17 Vols


© 1997, Paul Halsall, halsall@murray.fordham.edu



The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 21 January 2020 [CV]