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Internet Modern History Sourcebook

Editor: Paul Halsall

[This is an example of how an online syllabus circa 1998 looked]

| Modern History Sourcebook | Term Paper | Stylesheet|

Paul Halsall

Fordham Rose Hill/ HSRU 1000 /Spring 1998

The West: Enlightenment to Present

Class Hours: Keating214 Tue, 2:30-3:45pm, Fri, 1-2:15pm


Course description
Textbook and Readings
Class Requirements
Class Handouts, Projects and Guides
COURSE OUTLINE - with links to online lecture notes and primary sources
Class Schedule - in Table Form

The Course

This course is an introduction to the events, ideas, and developments that have created modernity since the 17th century. In world historical terms this has been the period of the achievement and collapse of European political and cultural hegemony. Although we shall look at other areas, our concentration will be on the changes that took place in the European World in the 18th and 19th centuries, the rise of European powers to world domination, the crises of politics and culture in the late 19th and early 20th century, and the emergence of a bipolar world after 1945. Political and economic elites in America and Russia, the successor powers to European empires, have long been involved with, and contributed to, European developments. Accordingly we shall not ignore how developments in those countries have contributed to the modern world.


The textbook (in a new edition for this semester - do not buy older editions!) for the course is:

Donald Kagan, et al., The Western Heritage, Volume II: Since 1648, 6th Edition, (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998)

It must be emphasized that your main reading is to consist of the primary source texts indicated in the course outline.

Sources and Other Readings on the World Wide Web

Students are required to do a varying amount of assigned reading outside class. By the end of the course you should be able to evaluate for yourself the varied interpretations given to the past. To this end a significant proportion of class time will be given to discussion of the readings. Disagreement with the instructor is strongly encouraged.

All the primary source readings for each class are on the World Wide Web. If you are reading the online version of this syllabus all you need do is to select [often by "clicking"] the texts in question, which are listed under each class. You can then read on screen, or print out the document. [For the computer-phobic copies may be made available in the library reserve room.] This option puts you, as Fordham students, on the cutting edge of technology.

The Internet is now a valuable research tool for students. Accordingly I shall also make this syllabus, course outline, and other class handouts available on the Web.

You must acquire a CIMS account for this semester. You can access this account from any VAX terminal at Fordham, from the new net terminals, from terminals in the library, and from home if you have a modem.

The World Wide Web browser available at Fordham on the older VAX terminals is called LYNX. To invoke the "pages" for this course simple sign on and type


LYNX will only let you see the texts in a plain text mode. If you access the page from home, and have a web browser such as Netscape or the one that comes with AOL, you will find a much more attractive graphical presentation.

Those with graphical browsers should just use the URL [web address]

Students are strongly recommended to provide themselves with the following reference works:-

Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary, (Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1993)
Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago P., 199?)
A good atlas. There is an immense variety available. Recent political changes have made older editions available cheaply.

Class Requirements

All class requirements must be met in order to earn a final grade.

Term paper/Annotated bibliography- 40% of total grade - topic due Feb 6 , Annotated Bibliography due Mar 6, Outline and Thesis due Mar 20  , Paper due Apr 3 .
Participation in class discussion, quizzes - 20% of total grade [every class!]
Midterm - 15% of total grade - Feb 24
Final exam - 25% of total grade [TBA]

The Term Paper (6-8 pages) will be a serious attempt (i.e. an essay) to deal with a historical problem chosen by each student. I will offer suggestions. On Oct 28 you must hand in brief statement of your topic. By Nov. 11 you must hand in a developed thesis statement, outline, and an annotated bibliography of at six-eight items. The paper must be handed in on time, Dec 2. It must conform to a standard term paper style, preferably Turabian since this is a history class, but I will accept MLA style. Papers with D and F grades may be resubmitted if submitted on time.

Class Policies

ATTENDANCE: Class participation is an essential component of the course. Any significant pattern of absences will be considered in determining final grades. Five or more absences will make it very difficult to obtain a passing grade.
EXAMS: Make up exams will only be given for certified medical reasons.
HONOR: Cheating will result in an F for any paper or exam in which it is detected.

Students are encouraged meet the instructor to discuss papers
and/or issues raised in class.

Class Handouts, Projects and Guides

Map Exercise
[This is a Microsoft Word document, it will not display on some browsers]
Term Paper
How to Write a Paper
How Papers Are Graded
How to use the World Wide Web


I: The Ancien Regime
II: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
III: American and French Revolutions
IV: The Industrial Revolution
V: The Century of Ideology and Power
VI: The End of European Hegemony
VII: World Since 1945


lecture 1: Introduction

Why Study History Through Primary Sources

lecture 2: Roots of Western Civilization

Section I: The Ancien Regime

Structures of Politics - Absolutism

lecture 3: Everyday Life during the Ancien Regime

Kagan, 545-61, 570-75

lecture 4: The Rise of Absolutism

Kagan, 449-51, 463-76, [513-36]
Cardinal Richelieu: Political Testament, 1624, [At Hanover]
Bishop Jacques Bossuet: Political Treatise on Kingship, [At Hanover]
¿ Reading Guide
Duc de Saint-Simon: The Court of Louis XIV, from Memoires
The Duchess of Orleans: Versailles Etiquette, 1704
Jean Baptiste Colbert: Memoirs - On French Finances, [At Hanover]
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): Leviathan, 1651, extracts

England, Holland, and America - Alternative Polities and Economies

lecture 5: Another Way: England, Holland and America

Kagan, 451-63, 504-09
Petition of Right, 1628, [At The American Revolution Site]
Statement of the Levellers, 1649, [At WSU]
Radical Women During the English Revolution
John Eveleyn: Diary, 1666-1689
Declaration of Right, February 1689, [At Hanover]
English Bill of Rights, 1689
John Locke (1632-1704): Second Treatise on Government, [At Hanover]
¿ Reading Guide
William Temple: Observations upon the United Provinces of the Netherlands

The Early Modern World System

Immanuel Wallerstein's World System Theory [Modern summary]

Back to Index

Section II:The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

The Scientific Revolution

lecture 6: Origins of the Scientific Revolution

lecture 7: The Scientific Revolution in the Seventeenth Century

Kagan, 481-93, 498-504
Nicholas Copernicus: Dedication of The Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies, 1543, [At Clinch Valley College]
Johannes Kepler: Laws of Planetary Motion, [At Hawaii]
A web page illustrating the laws in diagrams
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): Letter to the Duchess Christina of Tuscany, 1615
¿ Reading Guide
Réne Descartes: Discourse on Method, 1637, extracts, [At WSU]
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727): Mathematical Principles of Natural Philopsophy
On the rules of reasoning in philosophy.
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790): Experiments with Balloons, 1783
Thomas S. Kuhn: Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962, [At BGSU]
Summary of theories of an important modern theorist of the idea of scientific revolution.

The Enlightenment

lecture 8: The Rebirth of Philosophy

lecture 9: The French Enlightenment

% Crib Sheet: Rebirth of Philosophy: Empiricism and Rationalism
% Crib Sheet: Enlightenment Political Thought
Kagan, 609-29
Adam Smith (1723-90): Wealth of Nations, 1776, chapter 1, [At WSU]
On the division of labor.
Jean La Rond D'Alembert: Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot, [At WSU]
Voltaire (1694-1778): A Treatise on Toleration, 1763, [At WSU]
Voltaire (1694-1778): Selections from the Philosophical Dictionary, [At Hanover]
Charles Louis de Secondat Montesquieu (1689-1755): Persian Letters, No. 13, 1721
Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755): The Spirit of the Laws, 1748
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-78): Second Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, 1755
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-78): The Social Contract, 1763, extracts
Condorcet (1743-94): On the Future Progress of the Human Mind, 1794
¿ Reading Guide
Cesare Beccaria: An Essay on Crimes and Punishments
Paris Salons in the 18th Century
On Enlightenment society hostesses.
David Hume (1711-1776): On Miracles from Human Understanding
Enlightened Despotism
Kagan, 627-38
Catherine the Great of Russia: Various Documents on Enlightenment and Government
Frederick II of Prussia (1740-1786): Essay on Forms of Government

Back to Index

Section III: American and French Revolutions

American Independence

lecture 10a: The American Revolution

Kagan, 579-602
J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur (1735-1813): Letters From An American Farmer: Letter 3: What is an American, 1782, [At UVA]
Edmund Burke: On conciliation with America, March 22, 1775, [At The American Revolution Site]
Declaration of Independence, 1776, [At Yale]
United States Constitution, 1787, [At Yale]
James Madison:Speech proposing the Bill of Rights, June 8, 1789, [At The American Revolution Site]
Bill of Rights and the Amendments to The Constitution, [At The American Revolution Site]
Alexis De Tocqueville: Democracy in America, Book II: Chapter 8: Book III, Chapters 3, 4
Chief Black Hawk (1767-1838): Autobiography
Smallpox, Indians, and Blankets
Gottlieb Mittelberger, On the Misfortune indentured Servants, [At The American Revolution Site]
Oladuah Equiano: The Life of Gustavus Vassa

Liberal and Radical Revolution in France

lecture 10: The French Revolution: Origins

% Crib Sheet: The French Revolution
Kagan, 641-44
Cahier of the Third Estate of Dourdan, March 29, 1789, [At Clinch Valley College]

lecture 11: The Liberal Revolution

Kagan, 644-59
Abbé Sieyes: What is the Third Estate?
¿ Reading Guide - Early French Revolution
The Tennis Court Oath, June 20, 1789, [At Clinch Valley College][With facsimiles of the Document]
Declaration of the Rights of Man, 26 August, 1789, [At Yale]
Decree Abolishing Feudalism, 1789, [At Hanover]
Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790, [At Hanover]

lecture 12: The Radical Revolution

Kagan, 659-75
Proclamation of the Duke of Brunswick, 1792, [At Hanover]
The threat that lead to the onset of the French Revolutionary wars.
The Marseillaise
Maximilian Robespierre (1758-94): On the Festival of the Supreme Being,, 1794
Maximilian Robespierre (1758-94): Terror and Virtue, 1794
¿ Reading Guide
Responses to Revolution
Olympe de Gouges: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791
Edmund Burke (1729-1797): Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1791, extended excerpts

Reaction, Napoleon, and Romanticism

lecture 13: Reaction and the Rise of Napoleon  

Kagan, 675-79
Napoleon Bonaparte: Account of the Situation of the Empire, 1804, [At Hanover]

lecture 14: Napoleon and Romanticism

Kagan, 683-93, 694-99, 705-17
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Faust, 1808, [At Clinch Valley College]
William Wordsworth (1770-1850): Tintern Abbey
Beethoven [played in class]

Back to Index

Section IV: The Industrial Revolution


lecture 15: Causes of the Industrial Revolution  

Kagan, 561-70
The Agricultural Revolution of the 17th-18th Centuries

lecture 16: The Industrial Revolution: Technology and Social Effects  

Kagan, 761-72
The Revolution in the Manufacture of Textiles
Leeds Woolen Workers' Petition, 1786
Attacking the effects of machinery.
Leeds Cloth Merchants' Letter, 1791
Defending machinery.
The Revolution in Power
The Steam Engine [At Toronto]
A short modern account of how a steam engine works, and what was improved in the 18th century.
Thomas Newcomen: The Newcomen Engine, [At] [Sketch picture]
James Watt (1736-1819): The Steam Engine, c. 1769, [At] [Picture]
James Watt (1736-1819) and Matthew Boulton: An Industrial Steam Engine [witha 64 inch bore!], 1820, [At Kew Bridge Steam Museum] [Picture]
Richard Guest: Compendious History of the Cotton Manufacture, 1823
On the application of steam power to cotton looms and the social effects.
William Radcliffe: Origin of...Power Loom Weaving, 1828
On the application of steam power to cotton looms.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859): The S.S. Great Britain, 1839, [At Digiweb][Picture+text] or Another Picture [At]
The first ocean-going steam propeller ship.
Curt Anderson: The Two Countries That Invented the Industrial Revolution, [At][Modern Article]
An explanation of the different functions of invention in Briatin and the United States.  
The Lives of Workers
Observations on the Loss of Woollen Spinning, 1794
Life of 19th Century Workers In England [At Alderson-Broaddus College]
Edwin Chadwick (1803-1890): Report on Sanitary Conditions, 1842, [At Brown]
Texts on the Physical Effects of Factory Work, [At Brown]
Harret Robinson: Lowell Mill Girls, 1834-1848
Urban Life: New Social Classes
Friedrich Engels: Industrial Manchester, 1844
From The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844.
Andrew Ure (1778-1857): The Philosophy of the Manufacturers, 1835
Social Reformism
Florence Nightingale (1820-1910): Rural Hygiene
Life on the farm was not that much of an improvement over a factory. But, eventually, the social activists turned their eyes on the countryside as well.

Literary Response

William Blake: Preface to 'Milton', 1804, [At Clinch Valley College]
William Wordsworth (1770-1850): The Excursion, 1814
Charles Dickens: Hard Times, Chapter 2, [At Mt Holyoke]
Elizabeth Gaskell: North and South, 1855, [At Clinch Valley College]
Emile Zola: Germinal, 1885, extracts, [At WSU]
Andrew Carnegie (1835­1919): The Gospel of Wealth, 1889

Back to Index

Section V: The Century of Ideology and Power

The Congress of Vienna System and Challenges

lecture 17: The Congress of Vienna System and Challenges

Kagan, 699-705, 721-34
Prince Klemens Von Metternich (1773-1859): Political Confession of Faith, 1820
The Carlsbad Decrees, 1819, [At Hanover]
Joseph De Maistre: The Divine Origins of Constitutions, 1810
Conservative political thinking.

lecture 18: 1848: The Course of Events and 19th-Century Liberalism

Kagan, 742-51, 775-76, 780-93
1848: Europe in Revolt
Documents of the Revolution of 1848 in France, 1848, [At Hanover]
Hapsburg Documents, [At HNet] [Mostly Documents of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-49]
Thomas R. Malthus (1766-1834): First Essay on Population, 1798
David Ricardo (1772-1823): The Iron Law of Wages, 1817
John Stuart Mill (1806-73): On Liberty, extracts, [At WSU]
19th-Century Feminism
Kagan, 854-57
Seneca Falls Declaration, 1848
Sojourner Truth (1797-1883): 'An't I a Woman?', 1851
A rough-hewn account.
Susan B. Anthony: On Women's Right to Vote, 1873
Maria Eugenia Echenique: The Emancipation of Women, 1876, [At WSU] - An Argentinian femnist.
Margaret Sanger (1883-1966): Autobiography
On why she became a crusader for birth control.

lecture 19: Nationalism and the Decline of Cosmopolitanism

Kagan, 734-42, 801-22, [828-32], 857-58
Ideologies of Nation
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762­1814):, Addresses to the German Nation, 1806
Political nationalism as a response to Napoleon.
Giuseppe Mazzini: On Nationality as a Key to Social Development, 1852
Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847): Justice for Ireland, Speech to House of Commons, Feb 4, 1836
Theodor Herzl (1860-1904): On the Jewish State, 1896
Nationalism and Music
The Rise of Germany
Unification of Germany and Italy in Maps, 1850-1873, [At Clinch Valley College]
Otto von Bismarck: Memoirs, [At Hanover]
Otto von Bismarck: Speech on the Polish Question, to the Lower House of the Prussian Parliament, January 28, 1886, [At HNet]
Power and Ideology in the US: North vs. South
Kagan, 754-59
Monroe Doctrine, 1823¸ [At Yale]
John L. O'Sullivan: On Manifest Destiny, 1839, [At Mt. Holyoke]
The Conflict over Slavery
James Stirling: The Life of Plantation Field Hands, 1857
The opinions of the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case, [At The American Revolution Site]
Abraham Lincoln: Emancipation Proclamation, 1862, [At Yale]
Walt Whitman: Song of Myself, 1855

Responses to Economic Growth: S
Socialism and Marxism, Trade Unionism

lecture 20: Socialism, Marxism, and Trade Unionism

% Crib Sheet: Socialism, Marxism, Trade Unionism
Kagan, 776-87, 859-65
Early Socialism
Chartism: The People's Petition, 1838
Louis Blanc (1811­1882): The Organization of Labour, 1840
Karl Marx (1818-83) and Frederich Engels: Communist Manifesto, 1848, extracts, [At WSU]
Versions of Socialism
Edouard Bernstein (1850-1932): Evolutionary Socialism
William Morris (1834-1896): Why I Am a Socialist, 1884
Socialist Culture
Anne Maier: Autobiography, 1912
The Internationale
Trade Unionism

Responses to Economic Growth:

Kagan, 911-21
John A. Hobson (1858-1940): Imperialism, 1902
Extent of European Colonialism in Statistical Terms, [At Mt. Holyoke]
China and the West
Qian Long [Ch'ien Lung]: Letter to George III, 1793
Kaiser Wilhelm II: German Interests in China, 1900, [At HNet]
India Under the British
Raja Rammohan Roy: A Second Conference Between an Advocate for, and An Opponent of the Practice of Burning Widows Alive, 1820, [At WSU]
Sir William Bentinck: On Ritual Murder in India , 1829
Stephen Wooten: The French in West Africa, [At Wisconsin] [A modern account]
American Imperialism
Albert Beveridge (1862-1927): The March of the Flag, September 16, 1898
The Platt Amendment, 1903, [At Mt. Holyoke]
Celebrations and Objections
Rudyard Kipling: The White Man's Burden, 1899
Edward Morel: The Black Man's Burden, 1903,
Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness, 1902, extracts, [At WSU]
The American Anti Imperialist League Platform, 1899
George Orwell: Shooting an Elephant, [At BNL][Full Text]
The Japanese Exception
Theodore Roosevelt: The Threat of Japan, 1889, [At Mt. Holyoke]

The Second Industrial Revolution and Advanced Capitalism

lecture 21: Spread and Social Results of Industrialization

Kagan, 835-54
The Process of Industrialization
Tables Illustrating the Spread of Industrialization
Spread of Railways in Europe
George Friedrich List (1789-1846): National System of Political Economy
Robert Franz: The German Banking System, 1910
The Chemical Industry
Automation and the Assembly Line
The Modern Corporation

Contradictions of the Enlightenment:
Darwin, Freud, Einstein and Modern Art

lecture 22: Modernism: Late 19th/Early 20th Century Cultural Conflicts

% Crib Sheet: Late 19th Century Science and Culture
Kagan, 877-907, 958-63
Biology: Red in Tooth and Claw
Charles Darwin: Origin of the Species, 1859, extracts, [At WSU]
Charles Darwin (1809-1882): The Descent of Man, 1871
Herbert Spencer: Progess: Its Law and Causes, 1857
Social Darwinism by its founder.
Physics: The End of the Classical Synthesis
Bertrand Russell: Philosophical consequences of relativity, written for 13th ed of Encyclopedia Britannica, [At HK]
Psychology: The Obscurity of the Mind
Sigmund Freud: The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900, extracts, [At WSU]
Philosophical Reflections: The End of Reason?
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900): Parable of the Madman
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900): The Geneology of Morals, extracts, [At WSU]
Literature: Humanity's Heart of Darkness?
Mathew Arnold (1822-88): Dover Beach, c. 1851, [At Auburn]
Visual Arts: What to Do After Photography?
A Surrealist Manifesto: The Declaration of January 27, 1925
Religion in the Face of Modernity
Catholicism: Reaction and Radicalism
Pope Pius IX: Syllabus of Errors, 8 Dec 1864, [At American]
Pope Leo XIII: On the Condition of the Working Classes (Rerum Novarum), 15 May 1891, [At American]
Dorothy Day: Aims and Purposes, 1940 [At Catholic Worker]
This page has many more texts by Dorothy Day and other Catholic Worker writers.
Mary: Lourdes and Fatima
Missionary Expansion
Protestantism: Activism, Rationalism, and Fideism
Walter Rauschenbusch: The Social Gospel, 1908

Back to Index

VI: The End of European Hegemony

World War I

Kagan, 921-39, 944-45
The War
Literary Responser
World War I Poetry, Poems by Siegfried Sasson, Wilfred Owen, Herbert Read, and others
The Aftermath
Woodrow Wilson: The Fourteen Points, Jan 8,1918
The Versailles Treaty, 1919

The Russian Revolution

% Crib Sheet: The Russian Revolution
Kagan, 536-41, 823-28, 865-72, 839-44, 965-74, 1018-25
The Tsarist State
The Development of the Opposition
Maria Sukloff: The Story of An Assassination, extracts, [At WSU]
Vladimir Illyich Lenin (1870-1924): What is to Be Done?, 1902, extended excerpts
Vladimir Illyich Lenin (1870-1924): The State and Revolution, 1918, extended excerpts,
Vladimir Illyich Lenin (1870-1924): Excerpts from Lenin's Testament, 1922
Vladmir Illyich Lenin (1870-1924): Call to Power, Oct 24, 1917
Alexandra Kollontai: The Workers' Opposition, 1921, [At Marx.Org]
Hymn to Stalin, The cult of personality.
The Soviet Purges: Official Explanation, 1936

An Age of Anxiety?

Paul Valéry: On European Civilization and the European Mind, c. 1919, 1922
T.S. Eliot: The Hollow Men, [At Cambridge]
Bertrand Russell: Icarus, or, the Future of Science, 1924, [At Wisconsin]

Economic Problems and the Depression

Kagan, 979-89, 997-1006
John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946): The Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1920

Nazism and World War II

Inter-War International Relations
Kagan, 945-51
League of Nations Covenant, 1924, [At Yale]
Kagan, 975-79, 1017-18
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945): What is Fascism?, 1932
National Socialism
Kagan, 989-94, 1006-16, 1033-50, 1050-56, 1058-64
The 25 Points, 1920 An early Nazi program.
Lead Up to War
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Aug 29, 1939
Neville Chamberlain: Peace in Our Time, 1938
War In Europe
Vyacheslav Molotov (1889-1986): Broadcast Speech on the Invasion of The Soviet Union, June 22, 1941
War In Asia
The Nanking Massacre, The New York Times, December 18, 1937
Hiroshima Survivor's Accounts,[At OBI]
The Home Front
Winston S. Churchill, "Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat" Speech, 1940

The Holocaust

Kagan, 1050
Religious Anti-Semitism
Martin Luther (1483-1546): The Jews and Their Lies 1543 [At Medieval Sourcebook]
Racist Anti-Semitism
Adolf Hitler: First Antisemitic Writing, September 16, 1919, [At HNet]
Adolf Hitler: On Antisemitism in Vienna, 1925, [At HNet][From Mein Kampf]
The "Final Solution"
The Nazi Marking/Idenification System [At HistoryPlace]
Heinrich Himmler: Speech to SS Group Leaders at Posen, October 4 1943 , [At HistoryPlace]
Hermann Friedrich Graebe: Account of Holocaust Mass Shooting,, 1942
Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz: Testimony, 1946
Daniel J. Goldhagen: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust, [At HistoryPlace] [Modern Opinion Piece]
The Handicapped
Adolf Hitler: Order Authorizing Involuntary Euthanasia in Germany, October 1939, [At Hnet]
Gypsies in the Holocaust
Homosexuals -
Heinrich Himmler: On Homosexuals, [At PWH]
Para. 175,[At PWH] The Nazi laws on homosexual activity.
Hans Heger [pseud.]: Daily Life in a Camp, from The Men with the Pink Triangles, [At CMU] (Note: Heger is the name of the journalist who wrote the book. The "hero" of the book remains anonymous).
Pierre Seel: The Death of His Lover [At PWH]
Post-Holocaust Genocides
UN Resolution 260- On Genocide, 1948
François Ponchaud, Cambodia: Year Zero, 1978

Back to Index

VII: The World Since 1945

A Bipolar World

The United Nations
Kagan, 1064-68
United Nations Charter, 1945, [At Yale]
Human Rights: Universal Ideals or a Western Impositions?
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
The Cold War
Kagan, 1071-81, 1082-84
Winston S. Churchill: "Iron Curtain" Speech, 1946
Joseph Stalin: Response to Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech, 1946
The Truman Doctrine, 1947
President John F. Kennedy: Inaugural Address, 1961
The Vietnam War
Kagan, 1095-1102
Vietnamese Declaration of Independence, 1945

Europe, Yalta to Malta

Kagan, 1087-88, 1105-10, 1123-36
The Division of Europe
European Union
The Welfare State
Margaret Thatcher: Christianity and Wealth, Speech made to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, May 21, 1988
The Soviet Union/Russia
Kagan, 1084-87, 1110-13
Nikita Krushchev: Secret Speech, 1956
The Brezhnev Doctrine, November, 1968
Sam Marcy: The Collapse of the USSR and the Destiny of Socialism, [At CMU]
Other Eastern European Countries
Kagan, 1088-94
1989: What Happened and Why?
Kagan, 1143-64


Kagan, 1094-97
Mohandas K. Gandhi : Indian Home Rule, 1909, [At WSU]
Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964): Marxism, Capitalism and Non-Alignment, 1941, 1956
Mao Zedong: In Commemoration of the 28th Anniversary of the Communist Party of China, June 30, 1949
Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972): I Speak of Freedom, 1961
A.L. Geyer: The Case for Apartheid, 1953
Bishop Demond Tutu (1931-): The Question of South Africa, 1984
Nelson Mandela : Speech on Release From Jail, 1990
Nelson Mandela : Inaugural Address, May 10, 1994, [At WSU]
Israel and Palestine
Kagan, 1081-82, 1102-04
The Balfour Declaration, 1917
Israeli Declaration of Independence, 1948, [At Yale]
The Palestinian National Charter, 1968, [At Yale]

Social Movements

Kagan, 1116-21, 1136-40
Black Power
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
Martin Luther King: "I have a dream" speech - August 28, 1963, [At The American Revolution Site]
George Wallace: The Civil Rights Movement: Fraud Sham and Hoax,, July 5, 1964
Robert F. Kennedy: Speech on the Death of Martin Luther King,, April 4, 1968
Lesbian and Gay Rights
Homosexuals in Government, 1950. [At UPenn]
Jerry Lisker, Homo Nest Raided: Queen Bees are Stinging. Daily News (New York), July 6, 1969 [At CMU],
Gay Liberation Front (London): Manifesto, 1971 (rev. 1979), [At PWH]
Manifesto of First Chinese Tongzhi Conference, 1996, [At HKGAY]

Post-World War II Religious Thought

Kagan, 1140-43
Roman Catholic
Paul Tillich: The Courage to Be, 1952
Eastern Orthodox
Malcolm X: On His Pilgrimmage to Mecca, [At Unn.UK]

Back to Index

Class Schedule




Week 1 1/13 First Class 1/16
Week 2 1/19 MLK - No Class 1/23
Week 3 1/26 1/30
Week 4 2/3 2/6 Paper topic due
Week 5 2/10 2/13
Week 6 2/17 Monday Schedule - No Class 2/20
Week 7 2/24 Midterm Exam 2/27 
Week 8 3/3 3/6 Annotated Bibliography due
Week 9 3/10 3/13
Week 10 3/17 3/20 Paper Thesis and Outline due
Week 11 3/24 3/27
Week 12 3/31 4/3 Paper Due
Week14 4/7 4/10 Good Friday - No Class
Week 15 4/14 Easter Monday - No Class 4/17
Week 16 4/21  4/24
Week 17 4/28 Last Class 4/29-30 Reading Days
Week 18 May 1-8 Finals Week  


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(c) Paul Halsall January 1998
[email protected]

The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 12 June 2023 [CV]