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America as a World Leader: Internal Change

See Main Page for a guide to all contents of all sections.


America as World Leader: Internal Change

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US Domestic Politics: The State

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American Society: Immigration

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The 20th Century Expansion of Legal Rights

  • William O. Douglas (1898-1980): A Living Bill of Rights, excerpts, 1961 [At Internet Archive, from Civnet]
  • Balance of Power
  • Rights in Court
    • Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963 [At USInfo]
      Extended 6th Amendment right to counsel to defendants in state court cases.
  • Racial Equality
  • Free Speech
    • Abrams v. United States, 1919 [At USInfo]
      The dissent by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes which is seen as the start of modern judicial approaches to free speech.
    • Whitney v. California, 1927 [At USInfo]
      Justice Louis D. Brandeis's concurrence is counted as one of the greatest defences of free speech.
    • Near v. Minnesota, 1931 [At USInfo]
      Extended the First Amendment to cover state courts.
    • West Virginia Board of Education v.Barnette, 1943 [At USInfo]
      In  Minersville School District v. Gobitis (1940), the Supreme Court sustained local school board requirements that all students salute the flag. Jehovah's Witnesses refused to compromise, and in this case the Supreme Court reversed its earlier decision.
    • Engel v. Vitale, 1962 [At USInfo]
      The Supreme court effectively bans school prayer.
    • New York Times Co. v. United States, 1971 [At USInfo]
      The Supreme Court rules against "prior restraint" in publication.
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