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Homosexuality and Catholicism Bibliography:
Section I: Basic Data

© Paul Halsall

A: The Bible

Often cited references to homosexuality or related to the subject (some only possible):-

Jewish Scriptures/Old Testament:

  • Genesis 13:13, 18:20-22, 19:4-8. 19:24-25, Sodom story
  • Genesis 39:1-6 Potiphar and Joseph
  • Leviticus 18:22, 20:13, Levitical code
  • Deuteronomy 22:25 Ban on transvestitism
  • Deuteronomy 22:30 Fear of son seducing father?
  • Deuteronomy 23:1 Eunuchs banned from congegation of the Lord
  • Deuteronomy 23:17-18 Reference to temple prostitutes: KJV has "Sodomites"
  • Deuteronomy 29:23 Mention of Sodom
  • Deuteronomy 32:32 Mention of Sodom
  • Ruth 1:16-17, Ruth's pledge to Naomi
  • Judges 19:22-24, Gibeah story, parallel to Sodom story.
  • I Samuel 18 on David and Jonathan
  • II Samuel 1:26, 39:1-13 David and Jonathan
  • II Samuel 3:28-29, Men who spin
  • I Kings 14:24, 15:12, 22:46 King James Version uses "sodomites"
  • II Kings 23:7 King James Version uses "sodomites"
  • Nehemiah 1:11 Nehemiah as a "cup bearer"
  • Job 36:14 'unclean youth'
  • Proverbs 10:9 King James Version uses "pervert"
  • Isaiah 1:9 Mention of Sodom
  • Isaiah 3:9 Mention of Sodom
  • Isaiah 13:19 Mention of Sodom
  • Isaiah 56:2-8 Eunuchs are blessed by God
  • Jeremiah 23:14 Mention of Sodom
  • Jeremiah 49:18 Mention of Sodom
  • Jeremiah 50:40 Mention of Sodom
  • Lamentations 4:6 Mention of Sodom
  • Ezekiel 16:49-50 Ezekiel says what sin of Sodom actually was
  • Daniel 1 Daniel and his relationship with the chief eunuch
  • Joel 3:3 (Vulgate 4:3) Boys given as harlots
  • Amos 4:11 Mention of Sodom
  • Zephaniah 2:9 Mention of Sodom

Deuterocanonical Books

  • Wisdom 3:13-14 Barren women and eunuchs are blessed by God
  • Wisdom 10:6-7 Reference to destruction of Sodom. No ref to sex.
  • Wisdom 14:23-26 Cultic Homosexuality
  • Wisdom 19: 13 Hostility to Guests at Sodom
  • Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 16:8 Reference to arrogance of neighbors of Lot, ie Sodom

New Testament:

  • Matthew 5:22 Jesus on "rakah" and "moros"
  • Matthew 8:5-13/Luke 7:1-10 Centurion and his "pais"
  • Matthew 10:15 Jesus on Sodom
  • Matthew 11:23-24 Jesus on Sodom
  • Matthew 19:3-5 Jesus on Genesis 1 and 2
  • Matthew 19:10-12 Jesus on eunuchs for the kingdom of Heaven
  • Mark 6:11 Jesus on Sodom
  • Mark 7:20-23 Jesus on clean bodies
  • Mark 10:5 Jesus on Genesis 1 and 2
  • Luke 10:12 Jesus on Sodom
  • Luke 17:29 Jesus on Sodom
  • John 11: 3, 5, 36; 19:26; 20:2; 21:7, 20 Persons "whom Jesus loved"
  • Acts 8:26-39 Philip and the Ethiopian eunuch
  • Romans 1:18-32 Paul on effects of idolatry
  • I Corinthians 6:9-10 Paul 's list of sins.
  • Galatians 5:19-21 Paul's list of sins
  • Ephesian 5:3-5 "unclean people"
  • Colossians 3:5 Mortification
  • I Thessalonians 4:3-6 "possessing his vessel in sanctification"
  • I Timothy 1:9-10 Paul's list of sins
  • II Peter 2:4, 6-8 Mention of Sodom story
  • Jude 6-7 Mention of Sodom story as about sex with angels
  • Revelations 21:8, 22:15 reference to the "abominable" and "dogs"


  • Book of Jubilees 13:17, 16:5-6, 20:5-6 Sexual interpretation of Sodom story [2nd Cent BCE Jewish text, survives in Ethiopian.]

B: Roman Catholic Official and Semi-Official Church Documents on Homosexuality (Chronological)

The texts of many of the decrees of early councils that might relate to homosexuality are translated and printed in Derrick S. Bailey, Homosexuality and the Western Christian Tradition, (London: Longmans, Green, 1955; repr. Hamden, Ct.: Archon/Shoestring Press, 1975)

Council of Elvira, canon 71 305-306 [vs "corrupters of boys"]
This was first council to address sexuality in a major way. C. 71 is not about "homosexuals", but about clergy who "corrupt boys".

Council of Ancyra, canon 17, 314
Provided the basic canon law of middle ages on sodomy, but according to Derek S. Bailey, Homosexuality in the Western Christian Tradition, 86-88, the canon in fact referred only to bestiality. Texts of these canons and other ones to 1179 quoted in full in Bailey.

Basil of Nyssa, First Canonical Epistle to Amphilochus of Iconium, (Epist. 117, canon 62), 375
This is the canon most often cited by the Orthodox. It was a private letter by Basil, but later approved by councils

Gregory of Nyssa, Canonical Letter to Letoius of Mytilene (Epist. canonica 4), 390

Justinian, Novella 77, CJC, (used as canon law) 538
This and the following "Novel", enacted oppression of homosexual sex into secular law. At this stage the imperial secualr law of the Christian Roman Empire was also operative within the Church. The revival of Roman law studies in the 12th century meant that these laws had important effects on developing Roman Catholic canon law as well as secular law.

Justinian, Novella 141, CJC, (used as canon law) 544

2nd Council of Tours, c. 14, 567
Monks must not sleep two to a bed.

16th Council of Toledo, c. 3, 693
The Toledan councils were partly Church councils and partly councils of the Visigothic state.

    At this time there seems to have been a gap in Church actions. The canons of Ancyra were republished by several Carolingian kings, and there was much discussion (about 4% of the total regulations) in the new "penitentials" that were being developed. These do not seem to have been official docuements. At this stage confession by lay people seems to have been rare, and the there were no secular prosecution for "sodomy" - and both statements remained true until the 13th century it seems. Things did begin to heat up in the 12th century though, along with attacks on heretics, Jews and other social outsiders.

Council of London, c, 28, 29, 1102
This council seems to have been directed at the memory of William Rufus, well known for his homosexual activities. St. Anslem was Archbishop of Canterbury at the time, and, although he went along with the decreess. he refused to have them read out in every church because, as he said, the sin was so common. The decrees were not repeated in later councils in London, so either the clergy stopped practising sodomy, or people stopped being worried about it.

Council of Naplouse [Nablus/Shechem], canons 8-11. vs. sodomy, 1120
An important council that took place in the crusader kingdom of Jerusalem. Applied penalties for sodomy to laymen.

Ivo of Chartres, Decretum, in J. P . Migne, ed., Patrologia Latina, 161 cols 47-1022
See cols. 681-82 for denunciations of sodomy and lesbianism.

Gratian, Decretum, five refs. drawn from the fathers, C.32, q.7, c,11-14, c.1140
The Decretals were the major law book of the middle ages and later. It is interesting that Gratian drew from patristic opinion rather than a canon law tradition.

Lateran III [General Council], canon 11, 1179
"Clergy in holy orders, who maintain their wives incontintently in their homes should either expel them, and live continently, or be deprived of ecclesiastical office and benefice. Whoever is caught involved in that incontinence which is against nature, and because of which "the wrath of God came upon the sons of disobedience" (Eph. 5:6), and five cities were consumed by fore (Gen 14:24-35), if they are clerics, they should be deposed from clerical office and placed in a monastery to do penance; if they are laymen, they are to be excommunicated and completely isolated from contact with believers. If any cleric, without clear and necessary cause, should especially frequent nuneries, he should be restrained by the bishop, and if he does not cease, he should be deposed from his ecclesiastical benefice"
This is the first and only canon by a General council which could be considered against homosexuality. It is clearly a disciplinary decree, and the "incontinence which is against nature", could be bestiality or sodomy. Standard gloss by Bernard of Palma, ca. 1263 links it with novels of Justinian.

Innocent III, Letter, in Migne PL 215:189 [on sodomy in Macon], 1203

Lateran IV [General Council], canon 14, 1215
A possible reference. strengthens Lat III decree in general by calling on secular help. Only mentions clerical chastity. Again disciplinary, not dogmatic (this was the council that imposed special signs on Jews),

    [Various local synods in this period issued canons which referred to sodomy: Paris 1212[ii.21], Rouen 1214, Angers 1216/19, Beziers 1246; also constitutions of Fulk Bassest for London 1245/59, Alexander Stavensby for Coventry, 1224/37, Peter Quinel for Exeter 1287; also Dominican statutes, 1238, Carthusian statutes, 1261 and Cistercian statutes, 1279 - for all see Michal Goodich, The Unmentionable Vice, (Santa Barbara, Ca.: ABC-Clio, 1979), 45-46]

Gregory IX, Bull Vox in Rama, 1233
Condeming the activities of the heretic Conrad of Marburg, inc. rimming and bisexual orgies.

Gregory IX, Liber Extra 1234 [contains Lateran III canon]

      From this period on it is much more difficult to find official Roman Catholic references to sodomy. It was not mentioned, it seems, at any of the later medieval General Councils, nor at Trent, nor at Vatican I. Pope began writing "encyclicals" in the early 18th century, and none of them focused on, nor seem - I have not checked all - to mention sodomy, until John Paul II in 1993! Although more research need to be done on the period 1400-1900, reasons for this "decline" in statements seem fivefold: 

  • A: From the mid 13th century on secular rulers, such as Alfonso IX of Spain or the rulers of Venice and Florence,, passed and enforced - variably it must be noted, anti-sodomy laws.
  • B: The Decretals and Liber Extra became the norm of canon lawyers, who came to make up a profession, thus mitigating the earlier need to reiterate canons. The issue was discussed in confessors' handbooks, although a serious study of the Roman Church's position in the late medieval and early modern period seems not to have been done. [see, however, the recent article by Pierre Hurteau, "Catholic Moral Discourse on Male Sodomy and Masturbation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries", Journal of the History of Sexuality 4:1 (1993), 1-32]
  • C: It was not an issue of dispute between Roman Catholic and Protestant leaders.
  • D: Homosexual activity gets a reputation as a clerical vice, perhaps indicating a more tolerant ecclesiastical culture.
  • E: After the failure of the late medieval conciliar movement, local church councils seem to have been much less in favor. Especially after the Reformation, attempts were made to keep ecclesiastical law making uniform and directed from Rome.

Homosexuality was decriminalized under the Napoleonic Code in some European countries, most importantly France, in the early 19th century. Nevertheless, in the late 19th century, homosexuality, now clearly defined, became the great taboo subject. With the Kinsey Report in the United States in 1948 (men) and 1953 (women) indicating that up to 37% of male respondents had been homosexually active, and 4-10% of men were predominantly homosexual, the situation changed rapidly. The 1957 Wolfenden Report in England, inspired by abhorrence at the blackmailing of gay people, had a similar effect. The work of Derrick S. Bailey in reevaluating the Sodom story also was widely reported. From this point on it was inevitable that the Churches would have to reexamine their positions.

Vatican II did not discuss homosexuality, but it did re-present marriage as not just a matter of physical procreation, but equally of union also. This teaching, which reflected many decades of development of thought in Roman Catholic circles (see John Noonan, Contraception) laid the foundation for the modern revaluation of homosexuality at present underway.]

Chavesse, C.M., Bishop of Rochester (RC?), "The Church and Sex", Practitioner 172 (1030, 1954), 350-54
Unnatural and defective sexual intercourse is to be suppressed.

Hierarchy of the Netherlands (Cardinal Bernard Alfink), The New Catechism, trans. Kevin Smyth, (New YorkL Herder and Herder, 1970), Dutch edition 1966, 384-85
Sympathetic, but condescending.

National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Principles to Guide Confessors in Questions of Homosexuality, (Washington DC: NCCB, 1973)

United States Catholic Conference, A Guide to Formation in Priestly Celibacy, (Washington DC: USCC, 1973

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (under Cardinal Franjo Seper), Declaration on Certain Questions Concerning Sexual Ethics (Humana Persona ) 1975, #8
First modern Vatican statement on a range of issues. Seems to be the first Vatican document to comprehend the notion of "sexual orientation". Came up with the isea that homosexual acts are wrong, but the homosexual "condition" is morally neutral, a position later attacked in the 1986 letter which discussed homosexuality as "objectively disordered".

Francis Mugavero, Bishop of Brooklyn, Sexuality - God's Gift: Pastoral Letter of the Most Reverend Francis J, Mugavero, Feb 11, 1976 in The Tablet (Brooklyn) (Feb 12, 1976), 14--15; also in Insight: A Quarterly of Gay Catholic Opinion 1:3 (Spring 1977), 5-7

Salvatorian Gay Ministry Task Force., Ministry/U.S.A. : a model for ministry to the homosexual community ; a guideline for extending a christian ministry to homosexual persons, 2nd ed. (Milwaukee, Wis. : Salvatorian Gay Ministry Task Force : distributed by The National Center for Gay Ministry, 1976)

National Conference of Catholic Bishops (US), To Live in Christ: A pastoral Reflection on the Moral Life, (Washington Dc: US Catholic Conference Publications Office, November 1976) in John Gallagher, Homosexuality and the Magisterium, (New Ways Ministry, c1985)
"Some persons find themselves through no fault of their own to have a homosexual orientation. Homosexuals, like everyone else, should not suffer prejudice against thier basic human rights. They have a right to respect, friendship and justice. They should have an active role in the Christian community."

Catholic Social Welfare Commission of England and Wales (under Bishop Augustine Harris)), An Introduction to the Pastoral Care of Homosexual People, (London: 1978)
Takes a strong "personalist" approach.

Catholic Council for the Church and Society (The Netherlands), Homosexual People in Society: A contribution to the Dialogue within the Faith Community, trans, Bernard A. Nachbar, (Mt. Ranier MD: New Ways Ministry, 1980), 21pp. Dutch ed. 1979

Roman Catholic Diocese of Baltimore, A Ministry to Lesbian and Gay Catholics, 1981 in John Gallagher, Homosexuality and the Magisterium, (New Ways Ministry, c1985)
Sensative and sympathetic report. Withdrawn after the 1986 letter.

Archdiocesan Gay/Lesbian Outreach (AGLO), Archdiocese of Baltimore, Homosexuality: A Positive Catholic Perspective, Questions and Answers in Lesbian/Gay Ministry, (Baltimore: AGLO, Archdiocese of Baltimore, 198?)
A 60 page booklet, the first ever released by an offical Roman Catholic diocesan ministry. Provides a positive context for gay and lesbian ministry in the Church. It gives information and refutes widespread myths, and argues for civil rights for lesbians and gays. Contains a list of recent Church statements and a bibliography.

Archdiocese of San Francisco Commission on Social Justice, Homosexuality and Social Justice: Report of the Taskforce on Gay/Lesbian Issues, (San Francisco: Commission on Social Justice, 1982, revised 1986)
The fullest Catholic treatment, but not approved by the hierarchy. Addresses the spiritual life of gay people, anti-gay violence, Latino gays, the diabled, youth, the aged, and lesbians and gays in religious life and the priesthood. Reissued in an updated and expanded edition in 198?.

Congregation for Catholic Education (under Cardinal William Baum), Educational Guidance in Human Love 1983 in John Gallagher, Homosexuality and the Magisterium, (New Ways Ministry, c1985).

Raymond Hunthausen, Arcbishop of Seattle, Letter to Priests, (June 1983) in John Gallagher, Homosexuality and the Magisterium, (New Ways Ministry, c1985).
"Social science statistics generally place the number of homosexual persons at approximately 10% or the population. This means that one out of four families has a member with a homosexual orientation. Put another way, these statistics tell us that many of our parishoners have, or are related to persons who have, a homosexual orientation"

Senate of Priests, San Francisco, Ministry and Homosexuality in the Archdiocese of San Francisco, 1983 in John Gallagher, Homosexuality and the Magisterium, (New Ways Ministry, c1985).

John Hickey, Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, Letter on Homosexuality, 1984 in John Gallagher, Homosexuality and the Magisterium, (New Ways Ministry, c1985)

Rigid thinking posing as "traditionalism".

John Quinn, Archbishop of San Francisco, Letter on Violence to Archdiocesan Deans, 1984 in John Gallagher, Homosexuality and the Magisterium, (New Ways Ministry, c1985).

P. Dumaine, Pastoral Guidelines for Ministry to Homosexuals in the Diocese of San Jose, [Valley Catholic, March 1986, 28-29] 1986

Washington State Catholic Conference, The Prejudice Against Homosexuals and the Ministry of the Church, 1986 in John Gallagher, Homosexuality and the Magisterium, (New Ways Ministry, c1985).

Catholic Bishops of New Zealand, Dignity, Love, Life, 1986
A statement supporting the rights of gay people and calling for compassion

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons, 1986, repr. in Jeaninne Grammick and Pat Furey, eds., The Vatican and Homosexuality: reflections to the "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral care of Homosexual Persons", (New York: Crossroad, 1988), 1-10
Using a proof-text approach to the Bible, and rejecting modern psychological insights, calls homosexuality an "objective disorder" and says, inter-alia that no-one should be surprised at anti-gay violence when lesbians and gays claim civil rights. Ordered Catholic bishops to eject lesbian and gay Catholic groups from churches. The positive aspect is that this letter finally accepts that homosexuality is a constitutive part of the personality and that gay people are a social group.

John Quinn, Archbishop of San Francisco, "Toward and Understading of the `Leter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons'", America 156:5 7 Feb 1987, 92-95, 160, repr. in Jeaninne Grammick and Pat Furey, eds., The Vatican and Homosexuality: reflections to the "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral care of Homosexual Persons", (New York: Crossroad, 1988), 13-19
Emphasises it was a letter to bishops, not all. Clearly embarrassed as Cardinals Law and O'Connor were listened to in Rome, while Quinn was ignored.

William D. Borders, Archbishop of Baltimore. On Human Sexuality: The Catholic Doctrine Pastoral letter addressed to the priests and people of the Archdiocese of Baltimore, 1987
Reiterates Vatican line. A real disaster compared to the very positive earlier Baltimore statement in the 1980s.

United States Catholic Conference, Human Sexuality, (Washington DC: USCC, 1991)

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Some Considerations Concerning the Catholic Response to Legislative Proposals on the Non-Discrimination of Homosexual Persons, 1991
Letter to bishops. Reiterates 1986 letter, then, incredibly, calls on Catholic bishops, with the USA in mind it seems, to oppose civil rights initiatives for lesbians and gays. Says that gays cannot be compared to other discriminated against groups such as racial minorities and women. Also approves of discrimination in teaching, coaching and military employment. Many Catholic bishops in the US have ignored it.

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Catechism of the Catholic Church 1992 [Multiple publishers, English ed. 1994] #2357-2359

Thomas Daily, Bishop of Brooklyn, Letter on Homosexuality (title?), (Brooklyn NY: 1993)
Nothing original at all. Regurgitates Vatican line, a real step backwards from Bishop Mugavero's work of 1976.

John Paul II, Encyclical Veritatis Splendor 1993, # 47
Apparently the first mention by a modern pope of homosexuality in a papal document, as opposed to endorsing the statements of Vatican congregations. John Paul mentions homosexuality, along with contraception, in passing as part of an extended letter defending the use of universalistic natural law ethics and, inter alia, rejecting the insights of cultural anthropology. This is textbook Thomism dressed up as phenomenology.

C: Non-Roman Catholic Official and Semi-Official Church Documents on Homosexuality (Chronological)

[Note see:-

Melton, J. Gordon, The Churches Speak On - Homosexuality: Official Statements from Religious Bodies and Ecumenical Organizations, (Detroit: Gale Research, 1991)
Statements from 1563 to 1990]

ANGLICAN: Bailey, Derrick Sherwin, compiler and editor, Sexual offenders and social punishment : being the evidence submitted on behalf of the Church of England Moral Welfare Council to the Departmental Committee on Homosexual Offences and Prostitution, with other material realting thereto, (London : Church Information Board, 1956)

QUAKER: Friends Service Home Committee, Alastair Heron, ed., Towards a Christian View of Sex, (London: Friends Service Home Committee, 1963) repr. in , Edward Batchelor Jr., ed., Homosexuality and Ethics, (New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1980), 135-38

UNITARIAN: Unitarian Universalist Church, Statement on Homosexuality, 1970

LUTHERAN: Lutheran Church in America, Statement on Homosexuality, 1970
Early statement, stating that homosexuals are only sinners like all others. It called for removal of legislation and police actions against gay people.

ANGLICAN: Episcopal Dicoese of Michigan, The Report and Recommendations of the Commission on Homosexuality, (Detroit MI: 1973) repr. in Batchelor Jr., Edward, ed., Homosexuality and Ethics, (New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1980), 125-34

ANGLICAN: Church of England in Australia and Tasmania, Diocese of Sydney, Ethics and Social Questions Committee , Report on Homosexuality, (Sydney: Church of England, Diocese of Sydney, 1973)

QUAKER: Blaqmires, David, Homosexuality from the Inside, (London: Social Responisbility Council of the Religious Society of Friends, 1973)

BAPTIST: Southern Baptist Convention, Resolution on Homosexaulity (1976), repr. in Jeffrey S. Siker, ed., Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate, (Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994), 204

PRESBYTERIAN: Council on Theology and Culture of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, The Church and Homosexuality: A Preliminary Study, (1977)

BAPTIST: Southern Baptist Convention, Resolution on Homosexaulity (1976)

UCC: United Church of Christ (US), Board of Homeland Ministeries, Human Sexuality: A Preliminary Study, (Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1977)
Early and liberal Protestant study.

PRESBYTERIAN: United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.. Advisory Council, Report on the Work of the Taskforce to Study Homosexuality, (New York: Advisory Council on Church and Society [UPUSA], 1978)

PRESBYTERIAN: United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.. Advisory Council, "Statement on the Ordination of Homosexuals: Policy Statement and Recommendations" (1978). This was also adopted by the "Presbyterian Church in the US", and became the official policy of the 1983 merged "Presbyterian Church (USA)". Excerpts repr. in Jeffrey S. Siker, ed., Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate, (Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994), 199-203
Allows ordination of "non-practising" homosexual people.

ANGLICAN: Sims, Bennett J, Episcopalian Bishop of Atlanta, "Sex and Homosexuality: A Pastoral Statement", Christianity Today 22:10 (February 24, 1978), 23-30
Anti-homosexual views expressed. Bishop Sims has now changed his mind, and will celebrate mass for Integrity, an Episcopal/Anglican lesbian and gay group.

ANGLICAN: Church of England, General Synod Board for Social Responsibility, Homosexual Relationships: A contribution to Discussion, (London: CIO Publishing, 1979)
Concludes that some people can justifiably enter into homosexual relationships.

METHODIST: Methodist Church (England), Division of Social Responsibility, A Christian Understanding of Human Sexuality: A Report of a Working Party for the National Conference of the Methdist Church, (London: Division of Social Responsibility of the Methodist Church, 1979)

BAPTIST: Southern Baptist Convention, Resolution on Homosexaulity (1980)

LUTHERAN: American Lutheran Church, Human Sexuality and Sexual Behavior, (adopted Tenth Convention, 1980), Section on homosexuality (pp. 8-9), repr. in Jeffrey S. Siker, ed., Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate, (Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994), 198-99

ORTHODOX: Orthodox Church in America, Sub-Committee of the Ecumenical Task Force of the O.C.A., Women and Men in the Church: A Study of the Community of Women and Men in the Church, (Syosset NY: Dept. of Religious Education, OCA, 1980)
Discusses homosexuality in most "traditional" terms. Uses English translations of the Bible that are not accepted as accurate on homosexuality. Good bibliography though.

BAPTIST: Southern Baptist Convention, Resolution on Homosexaulity (1985), repr. in Jeffrey S. Siker, ed., Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate, (Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994), 204
Hostile - opposes civil rights legislation for gays and lesbians.

LUTHERAN: Lutherans Concerned/North American Task Force on Theology, A Call for Dialogue: Gay and Lesbian Christians and the Ministry of the Church, (Chicago: October 1985)

LUTHERAN: Lutheran Church in America, A Study of Issues Concerning Homosexuality, (?: Division for Mission in North America, 1986)

ANGLICAN: Episcopal Church in the USA, House of Bishops, A Statement by the House of Bishops, (1990)

ANGLICAN: Issues in Sexuality: A Statement By the House of Bishops: A Statement by the House of Bishops of the General Synod of the Church of England, December 1991, (London: Church House Publishing, 1991)
Moderate statement by Anglican bishops. See homosexuality as condemned in the Bible, but welcomes gay people and couples into the Church. Opposes "practising" gay clergy. Uses the term "homophile" throughout.

PRESBYTERIAN: Presbyterian Church (USA) Special Committee on Human Sexuality, Keeping Body and Soul Together: Sexuality, Spirituality, and Social Justice. (Feb 1991)
The report repudiated the hegemony of white middle-class culture and advocated the ordination of homosexuals. It caused much controversy.

UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST: General Synod Resolution 91-GS-67 "Affirming Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Persons and Their Ministries" (1991), repr. in Jeffrey S. Siker, ed., Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate, (Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994), 205-206
The UCC General Synod has passed gay-supportive motions for a number of years. This is perhaps the most supportive of all the major Mainline American denominations

METHODIST: United Methodist Church, The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church (1992), has a section on Human Sexuality, repr. in Jeffrey S. Siker, ed., Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate, (Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994), 207-208

LUTHERAN: Division for Church in Society, Department for Studies of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, The Church and Human Sexuality: A Lutheran Perspective: First Draft of a Social Statement, (Chicago: Division for Church in Society, Department for Studies of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 1993)

UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST: General Synod Resolution 93-GS-79 "A Call to Consider Issues Relaling to Resolution 91-GS-67, Concerning the Gifts of Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals for Ministry" (1993), repr. in Jeffrey S. Siker, ed., Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate, (Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994), 206-207
A response to some internal Church divisions which followed the 1991 statement.

ANGLICAN: Continuing the Dialogue:A Pastoral Teaching of the House of Bishops to the Church as the Church Considers Issues of Human Sexuality, 5th Draft (June 1994)
Document for discussion at the 1994 Episcopal Church in the US Convention. Takes a traditional line in interpretation of many texts, but also considers recent scholarship. Makes a series of recommednations in somewhat guarded language - for instance about "pastoral" care for gays and lesbians (it uses these terms) or ordaining "practising gay clergy". Basically sees relationships that are analogous to traditional heterosexual marriage as potentially approvable. Draft released electronically, breaking embargo, by a conservative Episcopalian group.

ANGLICAN: A Pastoral Teaching of the House of Bishops to the Church as the Church Considers Issues of Human Sexuality, [need more details] (1995)

D: Bibliographies and Reference Works

Abelove, Henry, Michele Aina Barale, and David Halperin, eds, The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, (New York: Routledge: 1993)
Selection of some of most important theoretical and historical writings in Lesbian and Gay Studies.

Blaney, Robert W, "Homophobia/heterosexism and Lesbian/Gay experience: an annotated bibliography", in Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics, 1987; ed by D Yeager, 1987, 229-252

Bullough, Vern, An Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, (New York: Garland: 1976)
Vol 1, pp 331-62 on religion and homosexuality.

Coleman, P. E., "Bibliography: recent writings on homosexuality", The Modern Churchman, ns 25:4 (1983) 48-50

Dynes, Wayne, Homosexuality: A Research Guide, (New York and London: Garland, 1987)
Indispensable, wonderful and massive annotated bibliography of all areas of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered studies. Does not cover fiction. An essential starting point for lesbian and gay studies. 4858 citations, most heavily annotated.

Dynes, Wayne, ed., Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 2 vols, (Garden City, NY: Garland, 1989)

Foster. Jeannette H., Sex Variant Women in Literature: A Historical and Quantative Survey 2nd ed., (New York: Vantage Press, 1956)(repr. Baltimore: Diana Press, 1975)

Geloof, kerk en Homoseksualiteit, (Amsterdam: NVIH-COC, 1984)
22 page bibliography of Dutch language books and articles.

Gill, David W. Christianity and homosexuality: a brief bibliography, TSF Bulletin No 1 (October 1980), p. 8

Horner, Tom, Homosexuality and the Judeo-Christian Tradition: An Annotated Bibliography, (New York: ATLA - Bibliographical Series No. 5, 1981)
459 entries. Good, but very dated by now.

    McCollum, A. B. Journal of Ecumenical Studies 20 Fall 1983, p. 665
    Furnish, V. P. Perkins Journal 35 Winter-Spring 1982, p. 67
    Younge, R. G., Saint Luke's Journal of Theology 26 December 1982, pp. 78-79

Nelson, J. B., "Homosexuality and the Church: A Bibliographical Essay", Prism 6:1 (Spring 1991), 74-83

The New Catholic Encyclopedia, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967)
Excellent source of information, despite very anti-gay article by John Harvey.

Young, Ian, The Male Homosexual in Literature, (Metuchen, NJ.: Scarecrow Press, 1975)

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