LGBT History


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Section III: Lesbian and Gay Religious History

© Paul Halsall

A: Ancient and Medieval

Alford, John A., "The Grammatical Metaphor: A Survey of its Use in the Mideel Ages", Speculum 57 (1982), 728-60

Bailey, Derrick S., Sexual Relations in Christian Thought, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1954)

Bailey, Derrick S., "Homosexuality and Homosexualism", A Dictionary of Christian Ethics, (London: SCM Press, 1967)

Bailey, Derrick S., Homosexuality and the Western Christian Tradition, (London: Longmans, Green, 1955;repr. Hamden, Ct.: Archon/Shoestring Press, 1975)
Absolutely standard work by Anglican priest. No bibliography but text gives best overview of Church and secular legislation, and cites in full the relevant scriptural, canonical and patristic texts.

Baldwin, John W., The Language of Sex: Five Voices from Northern France around 1200, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994)

Barber, Malcom, The Trial of the Templars, (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1978)

Says sodomy Charges of 1308 are unproven. Use of "sodomy charges in late medieval politics examined.

Beck, Hans-Georg, Byzantinisches Erotikon: Orthodoxie-Literatur- Gesellschaft, (Munich: 1983)

Becker, Raymond de, The Other Face of Love, trans. Margaret Crosland and Alan Daventry, (New York: Grove Press, 1969; & London: Sphere Books),
Survey from Ancient times to now, with concentration on Christian world from early middle ages.

Bennassar, Bartolome, "Le modele sexuel: l'Inquisition d'Aragon et la repression des peches abominables", in B Bennassar, ed., L'Inquisition espagnole XV-XIX siecle, (1979), 339-369

St. Bernadino of Siena, Le prediche volgari, ed. Piero Bargellini, (Milan: Rizzoli, 1936)

Included two visicious vernacular anti-homosexual sermons by this 15th century saint, #35 (795-97), and #39 (893-919). Other references in his Latin works, sermons 11 and 15 in Opera Omnia, (Florence: 1950)

Bieler, Ludwig, ed., The Irish Penitentials, (Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies, 1963)

See Payer. This edition does not translate the "dirty bits"!

Bleibtrau-Ehrenbergm Gisela, Tabu Homosexualitaet: die Geschicte enies Vorurteils, (Frankfort am Main: S. Fischer, 1978)

Stresses German history of anti-homosexuality from earliest times.

Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg, Gisela, Der Weibmann : kultischer Geschlechtswechsel im Schamanismus : eine Studie zur Transvestition und Transsexualitat bei Naturvolkern, (Frankfurt am Main : Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1984)


Bloch, Iwan, "Die Homosexualitaet in Koeln am Ender des 15, Jahrhunderts", JFZ 1 (1908), 528-35

Sodomite sub-culture n 15th century Cologne.

Bond, Gerald, "`locus Amoris': The Poetry of Baudri of Bougueil and the Formation of the Ovidian Subculture", Traditio 42 (1986)m 143-93

Sees the subculture as not-homosexual and criticizes Boswell

Boswell, John, "The Church and the Homosexual: An Historical Perspective" (Keynote address at Dignity's 4th Biennial Convention, Sept. 1979), repr. in Kathleen Leopold and Thomas Orians, eds., Theological Pastoral Resources: A Collection of Articles on Homosexuality from a Pastoral Perspective, 6th ed., (Washington DC : Dignity. 1981, repr. 1985), 16-20

Boswell, John, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1980)
The single most important work in lesbian and gay Catholic history by a serious scholar. Proposes that homosexuals were accepted before the 13th century, and then intolerance set in. Criticised by gay radicals for letting the Church off the hook. Boswell rejects idea that homosexual subcultures are a recent development.
For the list of reviews (formerly here) see the Guide to John Boswell's Works

Boswell, John, Rediscovering Gay History : Archetypes of Gay Love in Christian History, (London : Gay Christian Movement, 1982)

Early presentation of the themes later developed in Same Sex Unions.

Boswell, John, "Revolutions, Universals, Categories", Salmagundi 58-59 (Fall1982-Winter 1983), 89-113 [reprinted, and more easily accessible in, Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vincus and Ceorge Chauncey, eds. Hidden From History, New York: NAL, 1989, 17-36)

Boswell's extended discussion of the method and theory behind his researches and interpretations.

Boswell, John, interview by Lawrence Mass, "Sexual Categories, Sexual Universals: An Interview with John Boswell", Christopher Street 151 (1990), 23-40

Boswell discusses with Mass the implications and controversies over his work.

Boswell, John., "Battle-worn.", The New Republic v. 208 (May 10 '93) p. 15+

ABSTRACT: In ancient times, homosexuality had a hallowed relationship to democracy and military valor, even though modern military officials tend to find this improbable or even unbelievable. Many persons who might now be considered "gay" played prominent roles in the military, and some observers of the times argued that gay men would make ideal soldiers because they would wish to behave admirably while those they loved were present. In 378 B. C., the Theban leader Gorgidas created a company of 300 men, known as the "sacred band" of Thebes, composed of pairs of lovers; according to Plutarch. The troop played a crucial role in many military engagements and was never beaten until the battle of Chaeronea in 338

Boswell, John, Same-Sex Unions in Pre-Modern Europe, (New York: Villard, 1994)

A groundbreaking study of the "Adelphopoiia" liturgy, which Boswell argues, was for centuries used as a public liturgy to celebrate erotic relationships between people of the same sex.
For the list of reviews (formerly here) see the Guide to John Boswell's Works

Boswell, John, "Dante and the Sodomites." Dante Studies 112 (1994?), 33-51

Brown, Peter R. L., Augustine of Hippo : a biography, (London: Faber; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967)

Brown, Peter, The Body and Society: Men Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity, (New York: Columbia UP, 1988)

Important book by the foremost scholar of late antiquity on the emergence of Christian sexual ethics and thought about the body. Vital.

Brundage, James, "Let Me Count the Ways: Canonists and Theologians Contemplate Coital Positions", Journal of Medieval History 10:2 (1984), pp. 81-93

Brundage, James, Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe, (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1987)

Now be the standard work on the subject.

Bullough, Vern L., "Byzantium and Eastern Orthodox Christianity", in Sexual Variance in Society and History, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1976. pp, 317-346

Bullough, Vern, "Transvestites in the Middle Ages", American Journal of Sociology, 79 (1974), 1381-94

Stresses female saints. reprinted in his Sexual Practices.

Bullough, Vern L. & James Brundage, Sexual Practices and the Medieval Church, (New Concepts in Human Sexuality Series) (Prometheus Books, 1982)
Brundage is a major canon lawyer. Uses quantative methods that are hair-raising at times

Castelli, Elizabeth, "`I Will Make Mary Male': Pieties of the Body and Gender: Transformation of Christian Women in Late Antiquity", in Julia Epstein and Kristina Straub, eds. , Body Guards: The Cultural politics of Gender Ambiguity, (New York: Routledge, 1991), 29-39

Cleugh, James, Love Locked Out: A Survey of Love, License, and Restriction in the Middle Ages, (London: Anthony Blond, 1963)

Compton, Louis, "Sodomy and Civil Doom: The History of an Unchristian Tradition", Vector Nov 1975, 23-27, 57-58

Brief survey.

Crompton, Louis, "Gay Genocide: From Leviticus to Hitler", in Louis Crew, ed., The Gay Academic, (Palm Springs, CA: Etc Publications, 1978), 67-91

Curtius, Ernst R., European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, (Preinceton NJ: Princeton UP, 1953)

See esp pp. 113-27. A discussion of the 11-12th century clerical culture, discussed at greater length by Boswell, which was tolerant of homosexual erotic literature.

Daichman, G.S., Wayward Nuns in Medieval Literature, (Syracuse NY: 1986)

Daniel, Marc, 'Was St. Thomas [a Becket] a Homosexual?", Homophile Studies: ONE Institute Quarterly, 19 (1963), 68-71

Discusses play by Jean Anouilh which portaryed Becket and Henry II as gay. Concludes that there is not sufficient evidence.

Deerma van Voss, Matthieu, Drie Egyptische Geboden, In Symbolae Biblicae et Mesopotamicae; by M Beek, et al, 1973 p185-187

Dynes, Wayne, "Christianity and the Politics of Sex", in Warren Johansson et al., Homosexuality, Intolerance and Christianity, A Critical Examination, (New York: Scholarship Committee, Gay Academic Union, 1981)

Less obessively anti-Christian than his colleagues in this collection of attacks on Boswell.. Clearly defines, apparently for all gay people, Christianity as "our enemy".

Eekhoud, Georges, "Saint Sebastien dans la peinture", Akdemos 1 (Feb 15 1909), 171-75

Eilberg-Schwartz, Howard, "People of the Body: The Problem of the Body for the People of the Book", Journal of the History of Sexuality 2:1 (1991), 1-24

Fiske, Adele M. Friends and Friendship in the Monastic Tradition, (Cuernavaca, Mexico: Centro Internacional de Documentacion, 1970)

On same-sex friendships in the middle ages.

Forsyth, Ilene, "The Ganymede Capital at Vezelay", Gesta: International Center of Medieval Art 15:1-2 (1976), pp. 241-246

Galatariotou, Catia, "Holy Women and Witches: Aspects of Byzantine Conceptions of Gender", Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 9 (1984/85), 55-94

Galatariotou, Catia, "Byzantine Ktetorika Typika: A Comparative Study", Revue des études byzantins 45 (1987), 77- 138

Despite its odd title, this contains one of the best discussions of Byzantine homosexuality - based on an examination of monastic foundation documents - the "typika" of the title.

Gauthier, Albert, "La sodomie dans le droit canonique medieval" in L'Erotisme au Moyen Age: Etudes presentees au IIe Colloque de l'Institut d'Etudes Medievales, 3-4 Avril 1976, ed. Roy, Bruno (Montreal: Ed. Aurore, 1977), pp. 109-122

Gilmour-Bryson, Anne, The Trial of the Templars in the Papal States and the Abruzzi, (Vatican: Biblioteco Apostolica Vaticana, 1982)

Goodich, Michael, "Sodomy in Ecclesiastical Law and Theory", Journal of Homosexuality 1:3 (1976), pp. 427-434
Looks at penitentials, patristics, canons, episcopal instructions to the clergy.

Gold, Penny Shine, "The Language of cross-sex friendship in The Life of Christine of Marykate", unpublished paper presented to the Midwest Medieval Conference 12 Oct 1984

Green, Richard Hamilton, "Alan of Lille's De planctu Naturae", Speculum 31 (1956), 649-74

Greenberg, D.E. & M.H. Bystrin, "Christian Intolerance of Homosexuality", American Journal of Sociology 88 (1982), pp. 515-548

Herter, Hans, "Effeminatus" in Reallexikon fuer Antike und Christentum: Sachworterbuch zur Auxeinandersetzung des Christentums mit der antiken welt, ed. Theodor Klauser., (Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1950- ) Issued in parts.

Looks at history of Christian condemnation of homosexuality.

Horn, Walter, and Ernest Born, The Plan of St. Gall, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), 3 vols.

Discusses Benedictin efforts to prevent sexual contacts with young monks.

Ide, Arthur Frederick, Sex, Women and Religion, (Dallas: Monument Press. 1984)

Discusses lesbianism in Byzantine convents (p 121).

Ide, Arthur Frederick, Lesbianism in the Eearly Religious Order of the Christian Church, (Dallas: Monument Press. 19??)

This and the following were reported as "forthcoming" in the 1985 bibliography by Nancy Manahan in Lesbian Nuns: Breaking the Silence. Nothing by Ide is cited by other scholars, and I have not read anything that impresses.

Ide, Arthur Frederick, Lesbianism in the Medieval Nunnery, (Dallas: Monument Press. 19??)

Johansson, Warren, "Ex parte Themis: The Historic Guilt of the Christian Church", in Warren Johansson et al., Homosexuality, Intolerance and Christianity, A Critical Examination, (New York: Scholarship Committee, Gay Academic Union, 1981)

Part of the Gay Academic Union attack on Boswell's book. Members of GAU identified Christianity as the cause of homophobia and opposed what they saw as Boswell's attempt to exonerate the Church. The booklet here also contains an interesting list of reviews of Boswell's book. Johansson has a good command of sources and language, but still comes across as cranky.

Johansson, Warren, "London's Medieval Sodomites", Cabiron 10 (1984), 6-7, 34

Based ona text of Richard of Devizes

Johnson, Penelope D. , Equal in Monastic Profession: Religious Women in Medieval France, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991)

pp 112-130, a discussion of the vow of chastity, including a rare discussion of lesbianism among medieval nuns. There are rare indications of such activity, but very "rare" indeed.

Karras, Ruth M. "Friendship and Love in the lives of two twelfth- century English saints", Journal of Medieval History 14:4 (1988), 305-320

Aelred of Rievaulx and Christina of Markyate

Koukales, P, The Private Life of the Byzantines [Byzantinon bios kai politismos] 8 vols., (Athens: Institut Francais, 1947-57)(in modern Greek)
Vol IV, 505-39 on homosexuality: NB sometimes referred to as Vie et Civilisation byzantines - check for French translation.

Laeuchli, Samuel, Power and Sexuality: The Emergence of Canon Law at the Synod of Elvira, (Philadelphia: 1972)

Lauritsen, John, "Culpa Ecclesiae: Boswell's Dilemma",in Homosexuality, Intolerance and Christianity: A Critical Examination, (New York: Scholarship Committe, Gay Academic Union, 1981)
Attack on Boswell's theory that the Church did not create hatred of gays, by a leading proponent of the theory that the Church was responsible. Quiet virulent about Boswell - who is said to lack "integrity". Lauritsen is now a leading figure in the attempt to deny that HIV causes AIDS.

Lea, H.C., A History of the Middle Ages, 3 vols., (New York: Harper, 1887)

See Vol 1: 32-34, 85, 101; vol 2, 150, 335, 408; vol 3, 639

Lea, H.C., "Unnatural Crime", in A History of the Inquisition in Spain 4 vols., (New York: Macmillan, 1922), Vol 4, pp. 361-377 (Chapter 16)
1497-1123, finds 20 persons burned at the stake and 48 "relaxed'.

Leclerq, Jean, Monks and Love in 12th Century France: Psychohistorical Essays, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979)
{Reviewed: AHR (1982), p.377}

Legman, Gershon, The Guilt of the Templars, (New York: Basic, 1966)

Argues that the Templars were a homosexual warrior order and were resistant to medieval Christianity. Poppycock.

Le Targat, Francois, Saint-Sebastien dans l'histoire de l'art depuis le XVe siecle, (Paris: Paul Vermont, 1977)

Le Targat, Francois, Saint-Sebastien: Adonis et martyr, (Paris: Editions Persona, 1983)

Levin, Eve, Sex and Society in the World of the Orthodox Slaves, 900-1700, (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1989)

Discusses homosexuality - emphasises that anal sex was the major problem. Also discusses "same-sex unions" [149-150], but seems serioudly misinformed in seeing a Slavic blood brotherhood origin and thinking that manuscriots go back to "at least the 14th century". Boswell has shown much earlier origins. Shows the general confusion over this issue.

Little, Lester K., "Pride Goes Before Avarice: Social Change and Vices in Latin Christendom", American Historical Review 76 (1971), pp. 16-49
Discussion of the changes in the relative seriousness of sins and why this happens.

McGuire, B., "Love, Friendship and Sex in the 11th Century: The Experience of Anselm", Studia Theologia 28 (1974), pp. 111-155
[Looks at spiritual/erotic affections. Finds Anselm unobsessed with male sexuality.]

McGuire, Brian P., "Monastic Friendship and Toleration in Twelfth Century Cistercian Life", in W. J. Shiels., ed., Monks, Hermits and the Ascetic Tradition, Studies in Church History 22, (London: 1985), 147-160

McGuire, Brian Patrick, "A changed face of Aelred: a new attribution of sermons to the abbot of Rievaulx;" introd by A Stacpoole, The Downside Review 103 p147-150 April 1985

McGuire, Brian, "Looking Back on Friendship: Medieval Experience and Modern Context", Cistercian Studies 21:2 (1986), pp. 123-142

McGuire, Brian P, Brother and Lover: Aelred of Rievaulx, (New York: Crossroad, 1994)

Finally McGuire comes out at says that, from a modern perspective, it is appropraite to say Aelred was "gay" (p.142). Interesting biography and context of Aelred's life, plus recent historigraphy are all discussed. There is an interesting chapter on the modern appeal and cult of Aelred.

McNeill, John Thomas, and Helena Gamer, eds., Medieval Handbooks of Penance, (New York: Colimbia UP, 1938)

Extensive selection in English. See Payer for analysis.

Matter, E. Ann, 'My Sister, My Spouse: Women Identified Women in Medieval Christianity", Jourbal of Feminist Studies in Religion 2 (Fall 1986), 81-93

Miles, Margaret, Carnal Knowing: Female Nakedness and Religious Meaning in the Christian West, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989; pb New York: Vintage, 1991), 53-77

Monter, E. William, "Sodomy and Heresy in Early Modern Switzerland", Journal of Homosexuality 6:1/2 (1980), pp. 41-55, trans. and revision of "La sodomie a l'epoque moderne en Suisse Romande", Annales ESC 29 (1974), pp. 1023-1033

Naecke, Paul, "On Homosexuality in Albania", International Journal of Greek Love 1:1 (1965), 39-47, translated by Warren Johansson from Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen 9 (1908), 325-327

Noonan, John T., Contraception: A History of its Treatment by Catholic Theologians and Canonists, (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1966)

Looks at all forms of "non-procreative" sexuality and Church attitudes to it.

Meeks, Wayne A., The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries, (New Haven CT: Yale UP, 1993)

Meeks does not really address homosexuality, but he does discuss the origins of the overall sexual ethic with some verve and interest.

Olsen, Glenn, "St. Anselm and Homosexuality", Anselm Studies (1988)

Article by a conservative Roman Catholic scholar.

Pagels, Elaine, Adam, Eve and the Serpent, (New York: Random House, 1988; pb New York: Vintage, 1989)

A discussion of the various reinterpretations of the Adam and Eve myth and its repercussions on Western views of sex. Pagels thinks Augustine is largely responsible for the idea that original sin is carried in semen. The book has been criticised by many.

Payer, Pierre J., Sex and the Penitentials: Formation of a Sexual Code 550-1150, (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1984)

Much more negative than Boswell, but then part of Boswell's argument is the concentration on laws and official documents has substantially misrepresented the history of homosexuality in the middle ages.

Partner, Peter, The Murdered Magicians: The Templars and Their Myth,(London: Oxford UP, 1982)

Suggests the Templats were homosexual.

Peter Damian, Liber Gomorrhanius in MPL 145, cols. 159­190, and as Book of Gomorrah: An Eleventh Century Treatise Against Clerical Homosexual Practice, trans. Pierre J. Payer, (Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1982)

One of the strongest attacks in the middle ages on homosexuality. The only surviving one it seems.

Ranke-Heinemann, Ute, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of God: Women, Sexuality, and the Catholic Church, trans Peter Heinegg, (New York: Doubleday, 1990, German ed. 1988)

Although Ranke-Heinemann is somewaht selective in her views, she marshals much evidence about the history of Roman Catholic attitudes towards sex, boty those that have changed and those that have not. She is much more pessimistic than Boswell. Chapter 27 address homosexuality directly, but it is her other chapters that ar most interesting.


Berry, Jason, "One Angry Catholic", New York Times Book Review Dec 30, 1990; p. 7, 8:1

Cahill, Susan, "Books: Critics' Choices for Christmas ", Commonweal Dec 7, 1990; 117:21 p. 730-731

Chadwick, Henry, "Celibacy Slated", Times Literary Supplement Jun 22, 1990; :4551 p. 663

Chittister, Joan, "If Bashing Is Backed by the Facts, Beware", National Catholic Reporter Feb 8, 1991; 27:15 p. 19-20

Genovesi, Vincent J, Theological Studies Dec 1991; 52:4 p. 770-773

Gleason, Elisabeth G, Catholic Historical Review Oct 1991; 77:4 p. 659-660

Hardy, Linda, "Cardinal Bashes Book, Makes It a Best-Seller -- Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven: Women, Sexuality, and the Catholic Church by Uta Ranke-Heinemann and translated by Peter Heinegg Photograph ", National Catholic Reporter Feb 8, 1991; 27:15 p. 19-20

Maitland, Sara, "Blind Mouths", New Statesman & Society Apr 20, 1990; 3:97 p. 37

Porter, Jean, America Mar 30, 1991; 164:12 p. 350

Read, Piers Paul, "When Sex Is Not a Sin", Spectator May 12, 1990; 39-40

Stuttaford, Genevieve, "Nonfiction: Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven ", Publishers Weekly Oct 19, 1990; 237:42 p. 45

Watts, Richard S, "Religion: Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven", Library Journal Dec 1990; 115:21 p. 130

Weeks, Jeffrey, History Today Nov 1992; 42 p. 57

Wright, A D, History Feb 1993; 78:252 p. 65-66

Ringrose, Kathryn, "Living in the Shadows: Eunuchs and Gender in Byzantium", in Gilbert Herdt, ed., Third Sex, Third Gender, (New York: Zone, 1994), 85-110

Roby, Douglass, "Early Medieval Attitudes to Homosexuality", Gai Saber 1 (1977), 67-79

Russell, Kenneth C., "Aelred, the Gay Abbot of Rievaulx", Studia Mystica 5:4 (Winter 1982), 51-64

ABSTRACT: Was St Aelred of Rievaulx, the 12th century abbot of a Cistercian monastery in the north of England and the renowned author of Spiritual friendship, The mirror of love and several other spiritual classics, a homosexual? in Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality, John Boswell says bluntly that "there can be little question that Aelred was gay and that his erotic attraction to men was a dominant force in his life". Boswell analyses Aelred's writings to establish that he did exhibit a preference for love relationships with members of his own sex. Once this is demonstrated he is eager to move on to the next figure in his historical survey. Boswell's conclusions seem sound, but is it enough to know that Aelred was a homosexual? Surely, once it is established that Aelred was gay we want to know how this factor influenced his life....Aelred felt that his teaching on love was applicable to everyone, but the fact is that his refined understanding of the value of human love and of the laws by which it must be governed came out of his own gay experience....He became a saint and a spiritual master not by repressing his sensitivity but by trying to respond to its appeal. [excerpts].

Salisbury, Joyce E., "The Latin Doctors of the Church on Sexuality", Journal of Medical History 12:4 (1986), pp. 279-290
Augustine, Ambrose, Jerome - After Augustine a change in view and celibacy seen as essential.

Saslow, James M, "The Tenderest Lover: Saint Sebastian in Renaissance Painting: A proposed Iconology for North Italian Art, 1450-1550", Gai Saber 1:1 (Spring 1977), 58-66, and response by Wayne Dynes, Gai Saber 1:2 (Summer 1977), 150-51

Sheehan, M.M., "Christianity and Homosexuality", Journal of Ecclesiastical History 33 (1982), pp. 438-446
Reviews Boswell, Social Tolerance, Goodich, Unmentionable Vice, and Coleman, Christian Attitudes

Shiels, W.J., ed., Persecution and Tolerance. Studies in Church History 21, (1984)

Collected articles.

Squire. A., Aelred of Rievaulx: A Study, Cistercian Studies Series 50, (Kalamazoo, MI: 1981)

Tannahill. Reay, Sex in History, (Briarcliff Manor NY: Stein and Day, 1980; pb New York: Scarborough Books, 1982)

Extended journalistic account of sex in history. Nevertheless useful and the easiest place to find information such as how castration was performed. Discusses the effects of Christianity, and the Sodom story, p. 153ff, p.285ff and p.375ff.

Tentler, Thomas T., Sex and Confession on the Eve of the Reformation, (New York: 1979)

Watkins, Renee Neu, "Mythology as Code: Lapo da Castiglionchio's View of Homosexuality and Materialism at the Curia", Journal of the History of Ideas Jan 1992; 53:1 p. 138-144

[Abstract from electronic database]:In 1438, Lapo da Castiglionchio wrote a lengthy Latin dialogue defending the service of the Pope and the tone of life at the Curia. He also made three references to homosexuality. His views toward homosexuals are discussed.

Wetherbee, Winthrop, "The Function of Poetry in `De Planctu Naturae" of Alain de Liile", Traditio 25 (1969), pp. 86-125
Unsympathetic to homosexuality. See pp. 102-105

Wright, David, "Homosexuality" in Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. ed. Everett Ferguson et al., (New York : Garland Pub., 1990)

Contains this gem "The conclusion must be that for all the interest and stimulus Boswell's book provides in the end of the day NOT ONE PIECE OF EVIDENCE that the teaching mind of the early Church countenanced homosexual activity." See entry under Biblical studies on an earlier Wright article.

Ziolkowski, Jan, Alan of Lille's Grammar of Sex: The Meaning of Gramma to a Twelfth Century Intellectual, Speculum Anniversary Monographs 10, (Cambridge, Mass.: Medieval Academy of America, 1985)
review, Speculum 63 (1988), p. 1015. Alan discussed homosexuality using a metaphor of bad grammar.

Zymaris, Nicholas, "The Rite of `Spiritual Brotherhood', Homosexuality, and the Orthodox Church", Axios (May 1984), 6-8

Zymaris, who is a long term student of Albania, speaks Albanian and has visisted as recently as 1993 churches in Albania which perform liturgical same-sex unions.

B: Modern (Since 1500)

Anabarbite Rivas, Hector and Ricardo Lorenzo Sanz, Homosexualidad: el asunto esta caliente, (Madrid: Queimada, 1979)

Looks at data from the Inquisition and then modern Spanish gay movement.

Briggs, Kenneth, Holy Siege: The Year That Shook Catholic America, (1992)


Watts, Richard S, Library Journal Oct 15, 1992; 117:17 p. 71

Bristow, Edward J, Vice and Vigilence: Purity Movements in Britain since 1700, (Totowa NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1977)

Brown, Judith C., "Lesbian Sexuality in Renaissance Italy: The Case of Sister Benedetta Carlini", Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 9:4 (Summer 1984), pp. 751-758; repr. in The Lesbian Issue: Essays from Signs, ed. Estelle B. Freedman et al (Chicago & London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1985), pp. 271-278

Brown, Judith C., Immodest Acts - The Life of a Lesbian Nun in Renaissance Italy, (New York: Oxford UP, 1986)

Discusses life and trials of Sister Benedetta Carlini in the 17th century. A rather late idead of "Renaissance". Expansion of an earlier article in Signs 9:4 (1984), 751-58


Bell, R.M., "Renaissance Sexuality and the Florentine Archives; the "lesbian nun" of Judith Brown", Renaissance Quarterly 40 (1987), 485-511 -Review article and discussion.

Boswell, John, "Old Habits, New Habits", New Republic Jan 6, 1986; 194:1 p. 36-39

Randall, Frederika, "Divine Visions, Diabolical Obsessions", New York Times Book Review Jan 19, 1986; p. 27

Jnl Mod Hist 60(1988), 172-174

Cath Hist Rev 73(1987), 619-620

Histoire 108(1988), p.66

American Journal of Sociology 93(1987), 324-336;

Bunch, Charlotte, Passionate Politics, (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987)

Pp. 168-173 on a 17th century Spanish Lesbian nun.

Chauncy Jr., George, "Christian Brotherhood of Sexual Perversion? Homosexual Identities and the Construction of Sexual Boundaries in the World War I Era", Journal of Social History 19 (1985), 189-212, repr. in Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vincus and Ceorge Chauncey, eds. Hidden From History, (New York: NAL, 1989), 294-317

Cooney, John, The American Pope: The Life and Times of Francis Cardinal Spellman, (New York: Times Books, 1984)

Diocesan pressure reportedly reduced the discussion of "Franny's" homosexuality in this book. Cooney cautiously mentions it on p. 91 and p.109 - and gives sources for his information. As Gore Vidal is quoted as saying "The serious crimes of Spellman were not sexual."

Defensa de los religiones de Convento de la Merced conta el proyecto de ley sobre supression de las communidades en el Peru, (Lima: 1886)

Defense of a monastery accused of "unnatural practices.

Delon, Michel, "The Priest, the Philosopher, and Homosexuality in Enlightenment France", Eighteenth Century Life 9 (1985), 122-131

Delumeau, Jean, Sin and Fear: The Emergence of Western Guilt Culture in thr 13th-18th Centuries, trans. Eric Nicholson, (New York: St. Martins Press, 1990; French original 1983)

A widely read discussion of the emergence of a "guilt culture" in the Est. Pp 436-45 is a vital discussion of the obsession with impurity, and indeed its equation with sin, in the Counter-Reformation period. Despite modern Roman approval of marriage, Delumeau demonstrates that long after marriage had been accepted as "sacrament" (in the 13th century), Roman Catholic leaders and moralists remained extremely suspicious of any sexuality. The chief point of the book, though, is its discussion of the use of fear and guilt (with phenomena like "sin lists) by religious leaders to terrify and control the laity.

Dickerman, Edmund H. "Henry III's Devotions: A Study in Sex and Religion", Journal of Psychohistory 5:3 (1978), 429-42

Tries to link Henry's religious activity to his "feminine nature".

Dorn, Georgette M, "Latin", American -- Sexuality and Marriage in Colonial Latin", America edited by Asuncion Lavrin", Catholic Historical Review Apr 1991; 77:2 p. 346-348

Dowling, Linda, Hellenism and Homosexuality in Victorian Oxford, (Ithaca and London: Cornell, 1994)

Although her interests are more general, Dowling devotes a chapter to examining the Tractarian, or Oxford movement in the Church of England, which led to many converts to Roman Catholicism as well as the modern Anglo-Catholic movement. She discusses the homosexuality in the lives of figures such as Gerard Manly Hopkins, Fr. William Faber and John Henry Newman, relying at time on Geoffrey Faber's book cited here below,

Dubois-Desaulle, G., Les infames pretres et moines non-conformistes en amour, (Paris: Editions de la raison, 1902)

An example of French anti-clerical literature of the late 19th/early 20th century. This one, claimiing to draw its sources from police records, list and descibes a lrage number of homosexual French clergymen. This mainly concerns records from the early and mid 18th century.

Duperray, Michel., De l'etat et de la capacité des ecclésiastiques pour les ordres et bénéfices, (Paris: P. Emery et M. Brunoet, 1703)

For clerical homsexuals see pp. 312-20 (III, 8)

Faber, Geoffrey, The Oxford Apostles, (London: 1933)

Discusses homosexuality in the Anglo-Catholic moevment, and of such Roman converts as Newman, Richard Hurrell Froude, Fr. Frederick Faber.

Gibson, William T., "Homosexuality, class and the Church in nineteenth century England two case studies", Journal of Homosexuality 21 no. 4:, 1991, 45-55

Harris, John, The Destruction of Sodom: A Sermon Preached at the Public Fast, before the Honourable Assembly of the House of Commons of Parliament, (London: C. Latham, 1628)

Example of 16th century sins of sodom litearture.

Hebblethwaite, Peter, Paul VI, (New York: 199?)

Extensive and well-received biography of Pope Paul VI. Gives a good insight into the history of Catholicism in the early and mid 20th century. Discusses, in somewhat subdued terms, Paul's homosexuality.

Hillard, David, "UnEnglish and Unmanly: Anglo-Catholicism and Homosexuality", Victorian Studies 25 (Winter 1982), 181-210
Very interesting account of homosexuality and the Anglo-Catholic movement in the Anglican Church.

Horner, Tom, Eros in Greece: A Sexual Inquiry, (New York: Aegean Books, 1978)

Looks at modern Greede. Pp. 54-74 on gays.

Hurteau, Pierre, "Catholic Moral Discourse on Male Sodomy and Masturbation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries", Journal of the History of Sexuality 4:1 (1993), 1-32

Humphreys, Laud, Out of the Closests: the Sociology of Homosexual Liberation, (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972)

Very early discussion of the emerginig gay rights movement. Pp. 143-153 discusses the involvement of gay Christians in movement, and the support provided by liberal ehurches from the very beginning.

Iaroslavskij, Eme;'ian Mikhailovich, Biblia dlia veruiuschchikh i neveriuiushchikh. Chast' Il. Kniga Bytiia (The Bible for Believers and Unbelievers, Part II. The Book of Genesis), (Moscow and Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo, 1925), 34-39

Tries to link "sodomy" to vices practiced in Christian monasteries. Ofetn reprinted in the former Soveit Union as anti-religious propaganda.

Jarrige, Pierre, Les jesuites mis sur l'eschaufard, (Leiden: J. Nicolas, 164)

By a Jesuit who converted to Calvinism. See Chapter 5 on homosexuality.

Jurrieu, Pierre, Prèjugés legitimes contre le papisme, (Amsterdam: H. Desbordes, 1685)

Attacks sodomy amongst the Catholic clergy.

Maynard, John, Victorian Discourses on Sexuality and Religion, (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 199?)

Mott, Luiz, and Aroldo Assuncao, "Love's Labors Lost: Five Letters from a Seventeenth Century Portuguese Sodomite" in Kent Gerard and Gert Hekma, eds., The Pursuit of Sodomy: Male Homosexuality in Renaissance and Englightenment Europe, (New York: Harrington Park Press, 1989) [also issued as Journal of Homosexuality 16:1/2 (1988)), 91-104

The oldest homoerotic love letters in a European vernacular - sent by the sacristan of Silves Cathedral in 1664. Preserved courtesy of the inquisition.

Rousseau, George Sebastian, "The pursuit of homosexuality in the 18th century: utterly confused category" and-or rich repository?", Eighteenth Century Life ns 9:3 (May 1985), 132-168

Perry, Mary Elizabeth, Crime and Society in Early Modern Seville, (Hanover NH: University Presses of New England, 1980)

The spectacle of over 300 sodomites nurned to death, and an account by Pedro de Leon, who attended them before hand.

Perry, Mary Elizabeth, "The `Neferious Sin" in Early Modern Seville" in Kent Gerard and Gert Hekma, eds., The Pursuit of Sodomy: Male Homosexuality in Renaissance and Englightenment Europe, (New York: Harrington Park Press, 1989) [also issued as Journal of Homosexuality 16:1/2 (1988)), 67-90

Unlike Italy, where secular governments ran the sodomy prosecutions, in Spain the Inquisition was in charge. This is a statistical account from 17th century Seville.

Posner, Donald, "Caravaggio's Early Homo-erotic Works", Art Quarterly 24 (1971), 301-26

Discusses Caravaggio's milieu, that around the homosexual Cardinal del Monte.

Reade, Brian, ed., Sexual Heretics: Male Homosexuality in English Literature from 1850-1900, (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970)

The introduction contains a discussion of homosexuality and Anglo-Catholicism, as well as homosexuality and Roman Catholicism. Discusses Newman, Froude and Faber. Mostly consists of extracts from prose works and poems. Includes works by Catholic authors Oscar Wilde, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Marc Andre Raffalovichs, A.C. Benson, and Fredrick William Rolfe.

Rougement, Denis de, Love in the Western World, trans Montomery Belgion, rev. ed. (New York: Pantheon, 1956; pb New York: Harper, 1956)

See pp. 159-64 for an intersting discussion of passion and eroticism in the mysticism of St. Theresa and St. John of the Cross.

Russell, George W.E., Saint Alban the Martyr, Holborn: A History of Fifty Years, (London: George Allen and Co., 1913)

Account of a famous Anglo-Catholic ritualist church in London which even in 1913 was, as the book says, "a young man's church". The Church in over 150 years never seems to have had anything other than homosexual clergy.

Sears, James T., Growing up gay in the South : race, gender, and journeys of the spirit, (New York : Haworth Press, 1991)

Seed, Patricia, "Reviews of Books: De la Santidad a la Perversion ", American Historical Review Apr 1989; 94:2 p. 557-558

[Abstract from electronic database]:Patricia Seed reviews "De la Santidad a la Perversion: O de porque no se cumplia la ley de Dios en la sociedad novohispana," edited by Sergio Ortega.

Sherr, Richard, "A canon, a choirboy, and homosexuality in late sixteenth-century Italy:a case study", Journal of Homosexuality 21 (1991) 3: 1-22

Trevisan, Joao S., Perverts in Paradise, trans. Martin Foreman, (London: GMP, 1986)

A historical account of gays in Brazil. Trevisan, who is a pioneer in the rich field of Brazilian gay history, recounts the activities of the Inquisition on Brazil against "sodmites".

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