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About IHSPIHSP Credits

Internet History of Science Sourcebook

Editor: Paul Halsall

This page is a subset of texts derived from the three major online Sourcebooks listed below. For more contextual information, for instance about the Islamic world, check out these web sites.

For help in research, homework, and so forth see


In addition to direct links to documents, links are made to a number of other web resources.
Link to a secondary article, review or discussion on a given topic.
Link to one of the megasites which track web resources.
Link to a website focused on a specific issue.. These are not links to every site on a given topic, but to sites of serious educational value.


  • General
  • Ancient Near East
  • Egypt
    • Theory
    • Mathematics
    • Technology
    • Medicine
  • Greco-Roman Culture
    • PreSocratics
    • Materialists
    • Pythagoreanism
    • Eleatic School
    • Sophists
    • Atomists
    • Critical Thought
    • Theoretical Science
    • Mathematics
    • Medicine
    • Engineering
    • Travel: Geography
    • Latin Authors
  • Byzantium
    • Mathematics
    • Medicine
  • Islam
    • General
    • Theory
    • Medicine
    • Impact
    • Famous Muslim Scientists
  • Latin Christendom
    • Attitudes
    • Medicine
    • Late Medieval Physics
    • Technology
  • China
    • General
    • Images
  • India
    • Mathematics
  • Scientific Revolution
    • General
    • Earlier/Alternative Ways of Understanding the Cosmos
    • Theory
    • Astronomy and Physics
    • Medicine
    • Freedom of Thought
    • Scientific Societies
  • The Enlightenment
    • Spread of Scientific Ideas
    • Attitudes
    • Opposition to Religion
  • Classical Science
    • Astronomy
    • Physics
    • Chemistry
    • Geology
    • Medicine
  • The Industrial Revolution
    • The Agricultural Revolution of the 17th-18th Centuries
    • The Revolution in the Manufacture of Textiles
    • The Revolution in Power
      • Railroads
      • Steamships
    • The Great Engineers
    • The Process of Industrialization
    • New Technologies
      • The Steel Industry
      • The Chemical Industry
      • Electricity
      • Efficiency, Automation and the Assembly Line
      • Aviation
      • Confidences and Disasters
  • New Science: Darwin, Freud, Einstein
    • General
    • Geology
    • Biology: Red in Tooth and Claw
      • Reaction to Darwin
      • Social Implications of Evolution
    • Mathematics
    • Physics: The End of the Classical Synthesis
    • Chemistry
    • Astronomy
    • Psychology: The Obscurity of the Mind
    • Philosophical Reflections: The End of Reason?
    • Science and War Technology
    • Scientists Reflections on Science and Meaning
  • Science, Technology and the Transformation in the Means of Production
    • Biology: The DNA Revolution
    • Space Exploration
    • Computers
    • Knowledge Based Production
    • The Internet
    • The World Environment: Cornucopeian Plenty or a Crisis Situation
  • Moral Issues and Modern Science
    • Use of Atomic Bomb
    • Genetics and Human Society
  • Further Resources in the History of Science
    • Webguides
    • Source Material
    • Other


Ancient Near East


Greco-Roman Culture



Latin Christendom



  • Mathematics

Scientific Revolution

The Enlightenment

Classical Science

The "Scientific Revolution" - understood as the time when a "paradigm shift" took place, ended with Newton's achievements. From the late 17th century until the late 19th century that vision of the cosmos was developed and filled in by what we now call "classical science". The achievements of this period have not been negated by the discoveries and theories of the late 19th and 20th centuries, but are now seen as accurate only with certain boundaries.

The Industrial Revolution

New Science: Darwin, Freud, Einstein

Science, Technology and the Transformation in the Means of Production

Moral Issues and Modern Science

Use of Atomic Bomb

Genetics and Human Society

Further Resources in the History of Science

© This text is copyright. The specific electronic form, and any notes and questions are copyright. Permission is granted to copy the text, and to print out copies for personal and educational use. No permission is granted for commercial use.

If any copyright has been infringed, this was unintentional. The possibility of a site such as this, as with other collections of electronic texts, depends on the large availability of public domain material from texts translated before 1923. [In the US, all texts issued before 1923 are now in the public domain. Texts published before 1964 may be in the public domain if copyright was not renewed after 28 years. This site seeks to abide by US copyright law: the copyright status of texts here outside the US may be different.] Efforts have been made to ascertain the copyright status of all texts here, although, occasionally, this has not been possible where older or non-US publishers seem to have ceased existence. Some of the recently translated texts here are copyright to the translators indicated in each document. These translators have in every case given permission for non-commercial reproduction. No representation is made about the copyright status of offsite links. This site is intended for educational use. Notification of copyright infringement will result in the immediate removal of a text until its status is resolved.

The Internet History of Science Sourcebook is part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project.

The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University.  Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 12 March 2023 [CV]