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Lullo, Archbishop of Mainz:
On Traffic in Ecclesiastical Serfs, c. 755

Even a wayward priest could descend to the traffic in serfs, as Lullo, Archbishop of Mainz, complained to the Pope. Those who were sent eastward were possibly used for colonization, but those who were sold across the sea certainly went into slavery.

But let your Holiness judge what is right and just about these things and not only of these but of all which he did perversely during his life and which are here made clear. For he took the goods and serfs of the church committed to his care, Faegenolph our serf, and his two sons Raegenolph and Amanolph, and his wife Leobthruthe, and her daughter Amalthruthe, and he took them to Saxony and exchanged them there against a horse belonging to a man named Huelp. But Willefrid sent Raegenolph beyond the sea with Enred and gave him together with his mother into slavery. But the serf and the girl, whom Aotrich gave to our church for the soul of his son, the said Willefrid took away and secretly carried them off. The name of this serf was Theodo and the name of his wife Aotlind; the priest Enred exchanged our serf Liudo against a horse with the man of Aldberchtes de Effernace, Upbit by name. And he took away secretly by night our serf Erpwine and ninety-four pigs which Hredun had given to our church; on another occasion he took our two serfs Zeitolf and Zeizhelm and at one time four of our oxen; later he took three more and recently he took eight cows and seven bulls. Seven of our best mares, four years old, he stole and gave to Wenilo near the church and he took many other horses being reared at that time and drove them to Hamburg. Of the gold and silver which Regenthryth, daughter of Athuolph, gave to our church, Enred took two gold bracelets and five gold ornaments worth 300 solidi....


J. P. Migne, ed., Patrologiae Cursus Completus, (Paris, 1862), Vol. XCVI, p. 827; reprinted in Roy C. Cave & Herbert H. Coulson, A Source Book for Medieval Economic History, (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1936; reprint ed., New York: Biblo & Tannen, 1965), pp. 293-294.

Scanned by Jerome S. Arkenberg, Cal. State Fullerton. The text has been modernized by Prof. Arkenberg.

This text is part of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

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© Paul Halsall, October 1998