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Medieval Sourcebook:
The Novgorod Chronicle:
Selected Annals

[from Walsh] The most important, as well as the best known, of the basic written sources of early Russian history is The Chronicle of Novgorod. The following selection consists of samples taken from the Chronicle, exemplifying the various types of entries from the 11th through the 15th centuries.

A.D. 1016. A.m. 6524. [There was] a fight at Lyubets, and [the sons of Vladimir] won; and Svyatopolk fled to Poland. And at that time Yaroslav was keeping many Varangians in Novgorod, fearing war; and the Varangians began to commit violence against the wives of the townsmen. The men of Novgorod said: 'We cannot look upon this violence,' and they gathered by night and fell upon and killed the Varangians in Poromon's Court; and that night [Prince] Yaroslav was at Rakomo. And having heard this, [Prince] Yaroslav was wroth with the townsfolk, and gathered a thousand soldiers in Slavno, and by craft falling on those who had killed the Varangians, he killed them; and others fled out of the town. And the same night Yaroslav's sister, Peredslava, sent word to him from Kiev, saying: 'Thy father is dead, and thy brethren slain.' And having heard this, Yaroslav the next day gathered a number of the men of Novgorod, and held an [assembly] in open air, and said to them: 'My beloved and honourable [bodyguard], whom yesterday in my madness I slew, I cannot now buy back even with gold.' And thus he said to them: 'Brethren my father Volodimir is dead, and Svyatopolk is [Prince] in Kiev; I want to go against him; come with me and help me.' And the men of Novgorod said to him: 'Yes, [Prince], we will follow thee.' And he gathered 4,000 soldiers: there were a thousand Varangians, and 3,000 of the men of Novgorod; and he went against him.

And Svyatopolk having heard this, gathered a countless number of soldiers, went out against him to Lyubets and encamped there in the open country a number of soldiers. And Yaroslav having come, halted on the bank of t)nieper; and they stood there three months, not daring to come together In conflict). Svyatopolk's (General] by name of Wolf's Tail, riding along iiver-bank, began to reproach the men of Novgorod: 'Wherefore have come with that builder of wooden [houses] ?

`You are carpenters, and we shall make you build houses for us.' And the Dnieper began to freeze. And one of Yaroslav's men was on friendly with Svyatopol . And Yaroslav sent one of his attendants to him by night, and he spoke to him. And this is what he said to him: 'What dost thou advise to be done now? There is but little mead brewed, and the [bodyguard] is large.' And that man said to him: 'Say thus to Yaroslav, if there is little mead, but a large [bodyguard], then give it in the evening.' And Yaroslav understood that he was advising him to fight at night; and that evening Yaroslav with his troops crossed the other bank of the Dnieper, and they pushed the boats away from the bank, and prepared to make battle that night. And Yaroslav said to his [bodyguard]: 'Put a mark on you, wind your heads in kerchiefs.' And there was a terrible fight, and before dawn they conquered Svyatopolk, and Svyatopolk fled to the Pecheneg people.

And Yaroslav went to Kiev, and took his seat on the throne of his father Volddimir. And he began to distribute pay to his troops: to the [elders] ten [half pounds of silver each], to the [foot soldiers] one [half pound of silver] each and to all the men of Novgorod ten each, and let them all go to their homes.

A.D.1066. A.M. 6574. Vseslav came and took Novgorod, with the women and Children and he took down the bells from St. Sophia - Oh great was the distress at that time!-and he took down the church lustres.

A.D 1007. A.M. 6575. They defeated Vseslav at Nemiza. The same year they captured him in Russia.

A.D. 1068. A.M. 6576. The wrath of God came on us; the Polovets people came and conquered the Russian land. The same year the men of Kiev rescued Vseslav from prison. The same year Svyatoslav defeated the Polovets people rear Snovsk and Izyaslav fled to Poland.

A.D. 1093. A.M. 6601. Vsevolod died; and Svyatopolk took his seat in Kiev. The same summer the PoIovets people defeated Svyatopolk and Mstislav at Trepol.

A.D. 1107. A.M. 6615. The earth trembled on February 5.

A.D. 1109. A.M. 6617. The water was high in the Dnieper, the Desna and the Pripet. And they finished the refectory in the Pechersk monastery. The same year a church was founded at Kiev by Prince Svyatopolk.

A.D. 1. A.M. 6619. Svyatopolk, Volodimir and David and the whole Russian Land to a man went against the Polovets people and defeated them and took their children, and rebuilt the fortified towns of Surtev and Sharukan.

At the same time the Lower town at Kiev was burnt, as well as Cherigov, Smolensk and Novgorod. The same year loan, Bishop of Chernigov, died. The same year Mstislav went against Ochela.

A.D. 1124. A.M. 6632. On the 11th day of August before evening service; the sun began to decrease and it totally perished; oh, there was great terror and darkness! There were stars and the moon; then it began to re-appear and came out quickly in full; then all the city rejoiced.

A.D. 1135. A.M. 6643. [Mayor] Miroslav went from Novgorod to make peace between the people of Kiev and those of Chemigov, and he came back without having achieved anything; for the whole Russian Land was in great disorder; Yaropolk called the men of Novgorod to his side; and the [Prince] of Chern igov to his; and they fought, and God helped the son of Oleg with the men of Chernigov and he cut up many of the men of Kiev and others they captured in the month of August. And this was not the whole of the evil; the Polovet s people and everyone began to muster fighting men.

The same year, Vsevolod with [Arch-Bishop] Nifont founded a stone church of the Holy Mother of God in the Market Place.

The same year, Irozhnet founded a church to St. Nicholas in Yakov Street The same year in the winter, [Arch-Bishop] Nifont with the best men went into Russia, and found the men of Kiev and the men of Chernigov ranged against each other, and a quantity of troops, and by the will of God they were reconciled. And Miroslav died before the return of the [Arch-Bishop] in January 28; the Bishop came on February 4. And they gave the [Mayor]-ship in Novgorod to Kostyantin Mikultsits.

A.D. 1141. A.M. 6649. On April 1 there was a very marvellous sign in the sky; six circles, three close about the sun, and three other large ones outside the sun, and stood nearly all day.

The same year they came from Vsevolod from Kiev for his brother Svyatoslav to take him to Kiev; 'and receive my son as your [Prince],'he said. And when they sent the Bishop and many best men for his son, they said to Svyatsoslav 'Thou wait for thy brother, then thou shalt go:' but he, fearing the men of Novgorod, 'whether they are going to deceive me,' fled secretly in the night; Yakun fled with him. And they took Yakun on the [river] Plisa, and having brought him hither with his brother Procupi, they nearly did him to death, having stripped him naked, as his mother bore him, and they threw the bridge; but God saved him, he waded to the bank, and they beat him no more, but took from him 1,000 [half pounds of silver] and from his brother 100 [half pounds of silver], likewise they took from others; And they exiled Yakun with his brother to the Chud people, having chained their hands to their wives from Novgorod, and kept them by him in favour. And Vsevolod was wroth, and he detained all the emissaries and the Bishop and the Merchants.

And the people of Novgorod went without a [Prince] nine months; and they summoned Sudila, Nezhata and Strashko from Suzhdal, who had fled from Novgorod on account of Svyatoslav and Yakun; and they gave the [Mayor]-ship of Novgorod to Sudila; and they sent to Suzhdal for Gyurgi to be [Prince] and he did not go, but sent his son, Rostislav, who had been before.

The same year Rostislav went on the throne at Novgorod, on November 26.

A.D. 1177. A.M. 6685. Gleb, [Prince] of Ryazan, died in captivity in Volodimir. At the same time [Prince] Mstislav was blinded, with his brother Yaropolk by their uncle VsevoIod, and he let them go into Russia. And the two blind [men,] being led with rotting eyes, when they reached Smolensk they came to Smyadino into the Church of the Holy Martyrs Boris and Gleb; and there forthwith the Grace of God and of our Holy Sovereign Lady the Mother of God and of the newly manifested holy Martyrs Boris and Gleb descended on them and there they saw clearly. The same year in the autumn the Nerev end form Ivankova took fire and five churches were burnt down. And in the winter [Prince] Mstislav with his brother Yaropolk came to Novgorod and the men of Novgorod set Mstislav on the throne, and Yaropolk in itorg, and Yaroslav in Volok-Lamsk, and thus they arranged [things] according to their will.

A.D. 1203. A.M. 6711. Rurik with the sons of Oleg and the heathen Polovets people, with Kontsyak and Danila Byakovits captured Kiev, on January 1, St Vasil's Day; and whomever their hands reached, whether monk or nun, priest or priest's wife, these they led off to the heathen; and all foreign merchants and foreigners of every country shut themselves up in the churches, and they granted them their lives; but their merchandise they divided with them by halves; but everything in the monasteries and in all the churches, all valuables and ornaments and ikons the pagans tore off and carried away into own land; and they set fire to the town . Then, too, the Russian [princes] Rurik, Roman, Mstislav and many others [Princes] went against the Polovets people. And then the winter was very cruel; and they took much plunder and drove away their herds. The same year Roman sent Vyacheslav ordering him to have Rurik shorn [a monk]. The same year the sons of Oleg defeated the Lithuanians, and did to death seven hundred and a thousand of them. The same year Miroshka; [Mayor] of Novgorod died, he was shorn in St. Georgi's, and then they gave the [Mayor]-ship to Mikhalko Stepanits. The same year for our sins all the horses died in Novgorod and in the villages so that it was not possible to go anywhere for the stench.

A.D. 1210. A.M. 6718. The men of Novgorod with [Princel Volodimir and [Mayor] Tverdislav, having pursued and found the Lithuanians in Khodynitsy, killed them.

The same year Vsevolod went against Ryazan and said to them: 'Come to me and my son Yaroslav over the Oka to deliberate.' And they went over to him and there be seized them all; and sent troops; and took all their wives and children, and set fire to their town; and thus he distributed them about the towns. The same winter [Prince] Mstislav Mstislavits came against Torshok, and seized Svyatoslav's courtiers and put the [Mayor] in chains and whoever could lay hands on their goods ftook them;] and he sent to Novgorod: 'I bow down to St. Sophia and to the tomb of my father and to all the men of Novgorod; I have come to you having heard of the violence [done you] by the [Prince;l and I am sorry for my patrimony.' Having heard this the men of Novgorod sent for him with great honour: 'Come, [Prince] to the throne.' And they sent Svyatoslav with his men in the Arch-Bishop's court until the settlement with his father. Mstislav came to Novgorod and they set him on his father's throne, and the men of Novgorod were glad; and Mstislav went with the whole army against Vsevolod, and they were at Ploskeya and Vsevolod sent to him: 'Thou art son to me and I father to thee; let go Svyatoslav with his men; and all that thou hast confiscated, make good, and I will let go the merchants and merchandise.' And Mstislav released Svyatoslav and his men and Vsevolod released the mercbants and their merchandise-, they both of them kissed the Cross and took peace, and Alstislav came to Novgorod.

A.D. 1238. A.m. 6746. The wife of Semen Borisovich made a monastery at the Church of St. Paul. That same year foreigners called Tartars came in countless numbers, like locusts, into the land of Ryazan, and on first coming they halted at the river Nukhla, and took it, and halted in camp there. And thence they sent their emissaries to the [Princes] of Ryazan, a sorceress and two men with her, demanding from them one-tenth of everything; of men and rprincesl and horses@f everything one-tenth. And the [Princes] of Ryazan, George Ingvor's brother, Oleg, Roman Ingvorevicb, and those of Murom and Pronsk, without letting them into their towns, went out to meet them to Voronazh. And the [Princesl said to them: 'Only when none of us remain then all will be yours.' And thence they let them go to Yuri in Volodimir, and thence they let the Tartars at Voronazh go back to the Nukhla. And the [Princes] of Ryazan sent to Yuri of Volodimir asking for help, or himself to come. But Yuri neither went himself nor listened to the request of the [Princes] of Ryazan, but he himself wished to make war separately. But it was too late to oppose the wrath of God, as was said of old by God, to Joshua,son of Nun, when leading them to the promised land, then he said: 'I shall before you send upon them perplexity, and thunder, and fear, and trembling.' Thus also did God before these men take from us our strength and put into us perplexity and thunder and dread and trembling for our sins. And then the pagan foreigners surrounded Ryazan and fenced it in with a stockade. And [Prince] Yuri of Ryazan, shut himself in the town with his people, but [Prince] Roman Ingorovich began to fight against them with his own men. Then [Prince] Yuri of Volodimir sent Yeremei as Voyevoda with a patrol and joined Roman; and the Tartars surrounded them at Kolomno, and they fought hard and drove them to the ramparts. And there were they killed Roman and Yeremei and many fell here with the [Prince] and with Yeremei. And the the men of Moscow ran away having seen nothing. And the Tartars took the town on December 21, and they had advanced against it on the 16th of the same month. They likewise killed the [Prince] and Knyaginya, and men, women and children, monks, nuns and priests, some by fire, some by the sword and violated nuns, priests' wives, good women and girls in the presence of their mothers and sisters. But God saved the Bishop, for he had departed the same moment when the troops invested the town. And who, brethren, wouldd not lament over this, among those of us left alive when they suffered this bitter and violent death? And we, indeed, having seen it, were terrified and wept with sighing day and night over our sins, while we sigh every day and night, taking thought for our possessions and for the hatred of brothers.

But let us return to what lied before us. The pagan and godless Tartars, then, having taken Ryazan, went to Volodimir, a host of shedders of Christian blood. And [Prince] Yuri went out from Volodimir and fled to Yaroslavl, while his son Vsevolod with his mother and the [Arch-bishop] and the whole of the province shut themselves in Volodimir. And the lawless Ismaelites approached the town and surrounded the town in force, and fenced it all around with a fence. And it was in the morning [Prince] Vsevolod and [Arch-bishop] Mitrofan saw that the town must be taken, and entered the Church of the Holy Mother of God and were all shorn into the monastic order and into strictest monastic order, the Prince and the Knyaginya, their daughter and daughter-in-law, and good men and women, by [Arch-bishop] Mitrofan. And when the lawless ones had already come near and set up battering rams, and took the town and fired it on Friday before Sexagesima Sunday, the [Prince] and Knyaginya and [Arch-bishop], seeing that the town was on fire and that the people were already perishing, some by fire and others by sword, took refuge in the Church of the Holy Mother of God and shut themselves in the Sacristy. The pagans breaking down the doors, piled up wood and set fire to the sacred church; and slew all, thus they perished, giving up their souls to God. Others went in pursuit of [Prince] Yuri to Yaroslavl. And [Prince] Yuri sent out Dorozh to scout with 3,000 men; and Dorozh came running, and said: 'They have already surrounded us, [Prince]. And the [prince] began to muster his forces about him, and behold, the Tartars came up suddenly, and the [prince,] without having been able to do anything, fled. And it happened when he reached the river Sit they overtook him and there he ended his life. And God knows how he died; for some say much about him. And Rostov and Suzhdal went each his own way. And the accursed ones having come thence took Moscow, Peryaslavl, Yurev, Dmitrov, Volok, and Tver; there also they killed the son of Yaroslav. And thence the lawless ones came and invested Torshok on the festival of the first Sunday in Lent. They fenced it all round with a fence as they had taken other towns, and here the accursed ones fought with battering rams for two weeks. And the people in the town were exhausted and from Novgorod there was no help for them; but already every man 6egari to be in perplexity and terror. And so the pagans took the town, and slew all from the male sex even to the female, all the priests and the monks, and all stripped and reviled gave up their souls to the Lord in a bitter and a wretched death on March 5, the day of the commemoration of the holy Martyr Nikon, on Wednesday in Easter week. And there, too, were killed Ivanko the (Arch-bishop] of Novitorg, Yakim Vlunkovich, Gleb Borisovich, and Mikhailo Moisievich. And the accursed godless ones then pushed on from Torshok by the road of Seregeri right up to Ignati's cross, cutting down everybody like grass, to within 100 and [66 miles] of Novgorod. God, however, and the great and sacred apostolic cathedral of St. Sophia, and St. Kyuril, and the prayers of the holy and orthodox [Arch-bishop], of the faithful [Princes] and of the very reverend monks of the hierarchical [assembly], protected Novgorod. And who, brothers, fathers, and children, seeing this, God's infliction on the whole Russian Land, does not lament? God let the pagans on us for our sins. God brings foreigners on to the land in his Wrath, and thus crushed by them they will be reminded of God. And the internecine war comes from the prompting of the devil: for God does not wish evil amongst man, but good; but the devil rejoices at the wicked murder and bloodshed. And any other land which has sinned God punished with death of famine, or with infliction of pagans, or with drought, or with heavy rain, or with other punishment, to see whether we will repent and live as God bids; for He tells us by the prophet: 'Turn to me with your whole heart, with fasting and weeping.' And if we do so we shall be forgiven of all our sins. But we always turn to evil, like swine ever wallowing in the filth of sin, and thus we remain; and for this we receive every kind of punishment from God; and the invasion of armed men, too, we accept at God's command; as punishment for our sins.

A.D. 1311. A.M. 6819. The men of Novgorod went in war over sea to the country of the [Germans], against the Yem people, with Prince Dmitri Romanovich and having crossed the sea they first occupied the Kupets river, they burned villages, and captured people and destroyed the cattle. And there Konstantin the son of Ilya Stanimirovich was killed by a column that went in pursuit. They then took the whole of the Black river, and thus following along the Black river they reached the town of Vanai and they took the town and burned it. And the [Germans] fell back into the [citadel:] -for the place was very strong and firm, on a high rock, not having access from any side. And they sent with greeting, asking for peace, but the men of Novgorod did not grant peace, and they stood three days and three nights wasting the district. They burned the large villages, laid waste all the cornfields, and did not leave a single horn of cattle; and going hence, they took the Kavgola river and the Perna river, and they came out on the sea and returned all well to Novgorod.

The same spring, on May 19, a fire broke out at night in Yanev Street, andd forty less three houses were burnt and seven people. Then in the night of June 28 Glebov's house in Rozvazha Street caught fire, and the Norev quarter was burnt, on one side so far as the fosse, and on the other beyond Borkov Street; and the Church of SS. Kosma and Demyan was burnt, also that of St. Sava, and forty churches were damaged by fire and several good houses. Oh, woe, brethren, the conflagration was fierce, with wind and hurricane! And wicked and bad men having no fear of God, seeing peoples run, plundered men's property. Then on July 16 a fire broke out at night in the Ilya street and here likewise was a fierce conflagration with a high wind, and crashing noise; the market place was burnt, and houses up to Rogatitsa Street, and the churches burnt were-seven wooden churches: St. Dmitri, . St. Georgi, S.S. Boris and Gleb, St. Ioan Ishkov, St. Catherine, St. Prokopi, and of Christ; and six stone churches were damaged by fire, and the seventh was the Varangian Church. And accursed men likewise having no fear of nor remembering the judgement of God, and having no pity for their fellows, plundered other people's property. Repay them, Lord, according to their deeds!

The same year they took the [Mayor]-ship from Mikhail and gave to Semen KIimovich. The same year [Arch-bishop] David erected a stone church at the gate of the Nerev quarter, to St. Volodimir.

A.D. 1327. A.M. 6835. The same winter a very great force of Tartars came, and they took Tver and Kashin and the Novi-torg district, and to put it simply, laid waste all the Russian Land, God and St. Sophia preserved Novgorod alone, and [Prince] Olexander fled to Pleskov, and his brother Kostyantin and Vasili to Dadoga. And the Tartars sent envoys to Novgorod, and the men of Novgorod gave them 2,000 in silver, and they sent their own envoys with them, with numerous presents to the [Generals].

A.D. 1349. AM. 6857. The King of Cracow with a large force seized the country of Volynia by deceit, and did much injury to the Christians, and he converted the sacred churches to the Latin service hated of God.

A.D. 1379. A.M. 6887. The same year the Tartars came into the Russian Land, against the [Great Prince] Dmitri. And the [Prince] went out against them, and it was on the Ovosha river, and there both forces met and God aided the Great Prince, and the Tartars turned shoulder and fled. The same year they founded two stone churches: one to the Holy Mother of God in the Mikhalitsa [Street] and the other to the Holy Frola and Lavra in Lyudogoshcha Street.

The same year the Lithuanian [Prince] Yuri Narimantovich came to Novgorod.

A.D. 1380. A.M. 688. The same year, in the month of August, news came to the [Great Prince] Dmitri and to his brother [Prince] Volodimir from the Horde that the pagan race of Ishmaelites was rising against the Christians; for there was some weak man Tsar among them, and [Prince] Mamai was controlling all their affairs and he was savagely enraged against the [Great Prince] and all the Russian Land.

And having heard this, that a great Tartar force was coming against him, the [Great Prince] Dmitri Ivanovich gathered many soldiers and went against the godless Tartars, trusting in the mercy of God and in His Immaculate Mother, the Mother of God, the eternal Virgin Mary, calling to his aid the honourable Cross. For he entered their country beyond the Don, and there was there a clean field at the mouth of the river Nepryadva, and there the pagan Ishmaelites had ranged themselves against the Christians. And the Moscovites, of whom many were inexperienced, were frightened and in despair for their lives at sight of the great numbers of Tartars, others turned to flight, forgetful of the Prophet's saying that one shall reap one thousand, and two shall move ten thousand, if God does not abandon them.

And the [Great Prince] Dmitri with his brother Volodimir ranged their troops against the pagan Polovets people, and raising their eyes humbly to heaven, and sighing from the depth of their hearts, said, in the words of the psalm: 'Brothers, God is our refuge and our strength.' And both forces immediately met, and there was a fierce battle for a long time, and God terrified the sons of Hagar with an invisible might, and they turned their shoulders to wounds, and they were routed by the Christians, and some were struck down with weapons, and others drowned in the river, a countless number of them.

And in the encounter [Prince] Fedor Belozerski was killed, also his son [Prince] Ivan; and other [Princes] and captains went in pursuit of the aliens. The godless Tartars fell from dread of God and by the arms of the Christians; and God raised the right hand of the [Great Prince] Dmitri Ivanovich and of his brother [Prince] VoIodimir Andreyevich for the defeat of the aliens.

And this was because of our sins: the aliens take up arms against us, that , we might renounce our wrong-doings and hatred of our brethren, from our love of silver, and from wrong judging and violence; but God is merciful and man-loving; He is not angry with us utterly, and is not at enmity for ever.

A.D. 1420. A.M. 6928. The men of Novgorod began to trade with silver coins, and sold the [Swedish copper coins] to the Germans, having traded with them nine years.

A.D. 1432. A.M. 6940. The Russian [Princes] Vasili Vasilievich and Yuri Dmitrievich came away from the Horde; Tsar Mahmed gave the title of [Great Prince] over the whole Russian Land to [Prince] Vasili Vasflievich.

A.D. 1434. A.M. 6942. [Prince] Yuri Dmitrievich seized the town of Moscow and took his seat as [Great Prince].

And the same year, in the spring, on April 1, in Holy week, the [Great Prince] Vasili Vasilievich came to Novgorod.

A.D. 1441. A.M. 6949. The same winter the Metropolitan Isidor returned to Russia from the Eighth [Assembly] in Rome, and began calling himself Legatos from the rib of the Apostolic seat of Roman power, and Roman Metropolitan: he also began the naming of the Pope of Rome in his services, and other new things which we had never heard since the baptism of the Russian Land; and he ordered Russian priests to perform his service in the Polish churches, and chaplains to serve in Russian churches. But Lithuania and Russia did not support this.

A.D. 1445. A.M. 6953. The same winter the [Great Prince] Vasili went against the Tartar Tsar Mahmed; many Christians died from cold, others were slain by the Tartars who laid waste the country. But God aided the [Great Prince] Vasili and the Tartars fled, others being slain.

Bread was dear in Novgorod, and not only this year but during ten whole years: one [half-roublel for two [baskets]; sometimes a little more, sometimes less; sometimes there was none to be bought anywhere. And amongst the Christians there was great grief and distress; only crying and sobbing were to be heard in the streets and market place, and many people fell down dead from hunger, children before their parents, fathers and mothers before their children; and many dispersed, some to Lithuania, others passed over to Latinism, and others to the Besermeny and to the Jews, giving themselves the traders for bread.

At the same time there was no law or justice in Novgorod; calumniators arose and turned obligations and accounts and oaths to falsehood; and began to rob in the town and in the villages and districts; we were exposed to the rebukes of our neighbours, who were around us. There was much confiscation, frequent demands for money, throughout the districts, with weeping and anguish and with outcries and curses on all sides against our seniors and our town: because there was no grace in us, nor justice.

This translation was made by Robert Michell and Nevill Forbes. The source is: Robert Michell and Nevill Forbes, (Translators) The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1417. Camden Third Series. Vol. 25. London: The Camden Society, 1914. Passim et seriatim. reprinted in Warren Walsh, Readings in Russian History, (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 1948)

Whenever possible English terms have been substituted for the Russian words which were retained in the Michell and Forbes translation. These substitutions are indicated by brackets.

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(c)Paul Halsall Mar 1996
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